Study of Heterotrophic Bacteria Changes in a Freshwater of Several Locations of Al Kabeer Al Shamali River

Issa Nour al-Din Kabibou(1), Jamil Ibrahim Abbas(1), and Anje Amin Mahmoud*(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

 (* Corresponding author: Anje Amin Mahmoud Email: 0933969945)

Received: 23/06/2020                   Accepted: 10/12/2020


The purpose of this study is to determine the water quality of the 16 Tishreen Dam Lake and the water outlet of the lake (Ain Al Baida irrigation tunnel) to find out the possibility of diverting part of the lake water to the drinking water network in Lattakia city. Water samples were taken seasonally for analysis to determine the suitability for drinking from three sites, namely the northern inlet to the lake (Ghamam Bridge), the 16 Tishreen Dam Lake, and the Ain al-Bayda irrigation tunnel during the period 2018 and 2019. the standard plate count agar procedure was used for analyzing samples for heterotrophic bacteria (HPC). Water quality parameters (pH, Tur, NO3, NO2, NH4+, PO4-3, and TOC) for the same samples were measured. Results showed significant differences for (HPC). The highest count was (40* 10-2 CFU/ ml) in the river water, and spatial analysis showed that the (HPC) for the river samples correlate with NH4+ (r =0.71).  Then decreased in the water of the dam lake because of stratification, with a linear correlation with turbidity (r =0.87). Then increased again in the tunnel, with respect to phosphate relationship with HPC (r =0.91). Therefore, the treatment plant must be established in order to connect it to the drinking water network.

Keywords, Heterotrophic bacteria, Water quality, Al Kabeer Al Shamali River, 16 Tishreen Dam Lake, Ain al- Bayda irrigation tunnel, Treatment plant.

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Effect of probiotic supplementation (Emotic) on some productive traits of fattening Awassi lambs and the economic efficiency

Muhannad Muna* (1), Faisal Maya(2), Adnan Kaheel(3)

(1). General Commission of Scientific Agricultural  Research – Lattakia research center, Syria.

(2).Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria.

(3). General Commission of Scientific Agricultural  Research, Animal Production,  Damascus, Syria.

 (*Corrsponding author: Muhannad Muna.

Received: 04/02/2020                               Accepted: 23/03/2019


This study was carried out at Sheep Section of Shami Camel Research Station, Damascus, Syria in 2012. Thirty Awassi lambs homogenous in terms of age (142.7±10.69 day) and weight (28.3±1.67 kg) were selected to determine the effect of adding probiotic (EMOTIC) on some productive parameters. The lambs were randomly divided into five groups. All housing and management conditions were similar for all animals throughout experiment period (91 days). The first group T (control), first experimental group T1 and second experimental T2 were fed on basic ration (85.8% concentrate and 14.2% wheat straw on dry matter (DM) basis), while T3 and T4 were fed with another rate (79% concentrate and 21% wheat straw on DM basis). All experimental groups were supplemented with probiotic at levels of 2g/head/day for T1 and T3, and 3g/head/day for T2 and T4. The results showed that the total weight gain TWG of lambs of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were (23.17±0.78, 23.58±0.84, 21.52±0.34 and 22.4±0.67) respectively. The TWG values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of T (17.87±1.06 ). No significant differences in dry matter intake. The feed conversion ratio FCR was the lowest in T2 (5.33±0.43) and it was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in all experimental groups in comparison with T. The cost of feed for each kg body weight gain values were lower in the fourth experimental groups by 17.5, 16.21, 11.8 and 12.41% respectively vs T. The gain of each sold lamb was .high in all experimental groups vs control, and it was the highest in T2 (1948 SP) which, was higher than T by 87.74%. It could be concluded that using Emotic as probiotic at level of 3 g/head/day had high body gain and low feed conversion, in addition to better economic efficiency, while the level 2 g/head/day had the lowest feeding cost.

Keyword: Awassi lamb, Probiotic, Feed conversion, Total weight gain,
 Economic efficiency.

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Detection the Ability of Some Local Fungal Isolatesin the Secretion of Hydrolysis Enzymes and Indol-3-Acetic Acid Growth Regulator

Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali*(1), and Amina Abdul-Hamied Saad(1)

(1).Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida, Libya.

(*corresponding, Zahra El-Gali, E. mail:

Received: 19/09/2020                              Accepted:15 /10/2020


This study was conducted during the year 2018-2019 in plant pathology laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, with the aim of detection the ability of some local isolates fungi Botrytis cinerea, Macrophominaphaseolina, Rhizoctoniasolani, Sclerotiniasclerotiorumand Trichodermaharzianum to produced hydrolysis enzymes such as cellulose, amylase and pectinase in solids media, as well as testingtheir ability to Indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) growth regulator secretion in Czapek brothmedia amended with tryptophan. Observations showed that fungal species were significantly differed for their ability to produce lytic enzymes. All the isolated fungi had the capacity to cellulase enzyme production in solid media and the all of them also were able to amylase enzyme production, except B. cinerea, while T. harzianumwas be not produce of pectinase enzyme. harzianum gave the highest capability for the production of cellulase (2.9cm) and amylase(4.5cm) enzymes, while M. phaseolinagave the highest (2.4cm) in pectinase production. The production ability was reflected on degradation indicator and degree of degradation. Concerning with growth regulator the results showed that T. harzianum only was able on Indol-3-acetic acid secretion.

Keywords: Fungi, lytic enzymes, growth regulators, IAA, Libya.

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Effect of (PGPR) Bacteria on Some Morphological and Qualitative Traits of Pepper and (CMV) Infection

Mohammad S .Ibrahim(1)*  ,Yaser A. Hammad (1) and  Salim Raahe(2)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria

 (*Corresponding author: Mohammad. S. Ibrahim. E-Mail:

Received: 24/07/2019                               Accepted: 25/08/2019


This study is aimed to study the effect of using four species of bacteria (PGPR) Azotobacter chroococcum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus megaterium and Frateuria aurantia on growth, and reducing the effect of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on pepper plants in a greenhouse experiment. The observed growth parameters were: (surface leaf area, its index, concentration of vitamin C, and concentration of salicylic acid) in a greenhouse expirment in Tartous in the season 2016/2017. The results revealed that the inoculation single or mixed led to significant increasing in the whole treatments compared with the non-inoculated healthy control, and the effect of CMV in the inoculated plants was reduced and increasing in growth parameters compared with the non-inoculated healthy control. However, the single inoculation with Frateuria aurantia gave the best significant increasing compared with the other strains Bacillus megaterium, Rhizobium leguminosarum and Azotobacter chroococcum and the treatment of the four bacterial species was the best and with significant differences The surface leaf area was 9843 cm2/ plant, and its index was 1.96 m2/m2. The concentration of vitamin C in the peppers was 228 mg /100 g. The concentration of salicylic acid in the leaves of the peppers was 82.87 μg / g fresh.

Keyword: PGPR, CMV, Pepper, Inoculation.

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Survey of Soil Fungi Causing Roots Rot of Evergreen Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Seedlings in the Forest Nursery

Komait Al-Htra*(1) and Abdul Rahman Khafteh (1)

(1).Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Syria.

  (*Corresponding author:Komait Al-Htra. E-Mail: )

Received: 13/06/2019                    Accepted: 07/07/2019


This study was conducted at Al-Hanadi forest nursery during the season 2017-2018 to identify the soil fungi causing the diseases of Evergreen Cypress seedling and determine the symptoms with estimating of their incidence and severity. Six fungal genera were isolated and purified from the bed soil and the roots of Evergreen Cypress. These genera namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Macrophomina, Verticillium, Cladosporium and Phoma. Fusarium was the most frequent in the soil compared to all other fungi and its incidence percentage was 28.5- 25% on the roots of the Evergreen Cypress seedling aged 4 and 12 months, respectively. The percentages of infection and severity were gradually increased with temperatures rising to reach the highest in June 10.1 & 4.6% for Evergreen Cypress seedling, respectively.

Keywords: Cupressus sempervirens, Soil fungi, Roots rot.

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Influence of Plant Density and Cucumber mosaic virus Infection on the Morphological Traits of Beans Vicia faba

yousef mohamad(1), Emad Daoud Ismail(2), Khaled Farid Al-Janad(*3)

(1) Department of Field Crops – Faculty of Agriculture – Tishreen University – Lattakia – Syria.

(2) Department of Plant Protection – Faculty of Agriculture – Tishreen University – Lattakia – Syria.

(3) Department of Field Crops – Faculty of Agriculture – Tishreen University – Lattakia – Syria.

 (*Corresponding author: Farid Al-Janad,

Received: 11/03/2020                               Accepted: 27/09/2020


The research was carried out during 2017/2018 growing season at Buqa Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tishreen University. in Lattakia . to study the effect of plant density and infection mosaic cucumber virus on the morphological traits of beans (Vicia faba L.). The local bean variety was used with three plant densities (5-10-20 plants / m2). Virus infection was made when the length of the plant reached 15 cm. The design of the experiment was carried out according to the Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with the arrange of split plot with three replicates. The treatments of infection were distributed to the main plots while the sub plots included the density treatments. Results showed that the plant density of (5 plants/ m2) surpassed the plant densities of (10 and  20 plants/ m2) in  number of plant branches , fresh weight of leaves on the stage of pods formation and leaves area at the stage of pods formation. The plant density of (20 plants/ m2) surpassed the other densities (5- and 10 plants/ m2) in leaf area index. treatment (E0) with a plant density of (5 plants/ m2) had the highest number of branches, fresh leaves weight and leaves area at the stage of pods formation the. ON the other hand, when the infected plant (E0) were planted at high density (20 plant/m2), they had the highest leaf area index. The healthy plants (E1) were superior to infected plants (E0) in all studied traits in terms of number of plant branches which declined by 16.66- 31.66%. fresh leaves weight per plant by 0.75- 1.80%. leaves area by 0.84- 1.82 % and leaf area index by 6.06- 14.28% respectively.

Keywords: Vicia faba, Plant density, Cucumber mosaic virus, Morphological traits.

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Behavior of Some Bean Genotypes Vicia faba L. Under the Environmental Conditions of Eastern Aleppo

Hasan Al-Assaf(1), Khald al-mohammad (1), Abdullah Al-youssef* (2)

(1). Dept. of orchards, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research

 (*Corrsponding author: Dr. Abdullah Al-youssef.

Received: 06/02/2019                               Accepted: 09/07/2019


The research was aimed to select the best genotypes according to their production performance and the characteristics associated with yield under the conditions of the eastern region of Aleppo. The plant material was planted with 74 Inbred lines and 4 local cultivars (Improved Municipal, Hama 2, Hama 3) and the Cypriot cultivar according to Randomized complete block design  with three replications and studied the most important productive attributes and their correlation with yield and calculated the broad sense Heritability (h2B.s) and estimated the coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlation between the studied traits and yield, and the GGE Biplot was used to study the relationship between studied traits. The results showed significant differences between the genotypes for all the studied traits. The G24 genotype distinguished the highest value of the number of pods per plant  (41) and the number of seeds per plant (259). G69 showed the highest value for the number of seed per pod (6) The genotype G37 recorded the highest value of seed weight per plant (94.3) and the genotype G9 was produced the highest yield (3777.8) compared with all studied genotypes Genetic variation was the highest for yield trait, and broad sense heritability was the highest value for both biological yield and seed weight per plant (99%). The genetic correlation was significant between most of the traits. The GGE Biplot analysis showed that the best genotype combines these traits was G24 .

Keyword: Bean, Genotypic Correlation, Phenotypic Correlation, Heritability.

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Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression of Gossypium hirsutum Hybrids

Ahmad Aljuoma(1) and Jamila Dirbas*(1)

(1). Cotton Research AdministrationSyria

(*Corrsponding author: Jamila Dirbas..Email:

Received: 04/03/2019                               Accepted: 07/04/2019


The experiment was conducted at Hama Agricultural Research Center during 2016, 2017 and 2018 seasons to study the heterosis according to the best parent and inbreeding depression in F1 and F2 of the resulted hybrids from top cross program among ten parents of upland cotton. Analysis of variance indicated high significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sympodial brunch number in F2. Estimation of heterosis showed significant positive values in some F1 hybrids that reached 20.18% sympodial brunch number, (44. 74%, 44.30%, 47.06%, 65.00%) opened bolls number and (39.07%, 44.18%) seed cotton yield which may refers to variance of parents in genetic factors that control these traits. Heterosis in F2 excelled F1 which indicated to the transgressive segregation. Heterosis accompanied with positive inbreeding depression values indicating to dominance effect. Also, negative values of inbreeding depression were noticed in some hybrids because of F2 excellence to F1. To confirm the superiority in these hybrids, it is recommended to be tested in large-scale trials.

Keyword: Cotton, Heterosis, Inbreeding depression, F1, F2.

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The Response of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.var. Burley21) to Water Stress and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization under Tartous Governorate Conditions

Abdullah Rajab Ahmed (1), Majd Mohammad Darwish*(1) and Nazeeh Rokiah(1)

(1) Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Majd Darwish, Lattakia, Syria. E-mail:

Received: 20/08/2019                               Accepted:19 /12/2019


The experiment was carried out at Alrensiya village in Tatous governorate in the Syrian coast during the agricultural season 2018, and based on a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The aim of this study was to determine the response of Burley21 tobacco to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer additives. Both growing plants under full irrigation and water stress (50% of field capacity) were subjected to four nitrogen fertilizer additives (25, 50, 75 and 100) kg/ha. So, the plant height, plant leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), photosynthesis rate and crop growth rate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, fresh and dry leaves yield and leaf thickness were studied. The nitrogen fertilization increased most of the studied traits and indicators, both under irrigation conditions with full water requirements and under water stress conditions. This positive effect was also proportional to the amount of fertilizers used. However, water stress, led to decreases in most of the studied traits as compared to nitrogen fertilization treatments under the full irrigation conditions. In addition, the nitrogen treatment improved the growth and productivity indicators under water stress, and this positive effect was also proportional to the amount of fertilizers. The best results were obtained at nitrogen fertilization of 100 kg/h, either under irrigation conditions with full water requirements or under water stress compared to other fertilization treatments

Keywords:Burley21, Nitrogen fertilization, Water stress, Leaves yield.

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The Effect of Organic Fertilization on the Productivity and Quality Traits of Olive Al-deibli cv. Oil in Homs Governorate, Syria

Abd-Al-Karim Hashem Jerdy* (1) Bassam Ibrahim Oudeh(1), Ossama Naeim Murra (1)Wafaa Hashem Abboud(1)

 (1). Mokhtaria Research Station, Agricultural Scientific Research Center at Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

 (*Corrsponding author: Abd-Al-Karim Hashem Jerdy .

Received: 15/05/2019                               Accepted: 23/07/2019


This study was held in order to detect the effect of organic fertilization (sheep dung) on the productivity and quality traits of olive cultivar (Al-deibli), during the years 2012 and 2013, at the Agricultural Research Center (Al-Mokhtariah Research Station), General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSR). This research includes five fertilization treatments as follows: 1st treatment: control (without fertilization), 2nd treatment: 20 m3/ha of organic fertilizer (7360 kg/ha, 32 kg/tree), 3rd treatment: 40 m3/ha of organic fertilizer (14720 kg/ha, 64 kg/tree), 4th treatment: 60 m3/ha of organic fertilizer (22080 kg/ha, 96 kg/tree), 5th treatment: only mineral fertilizers according to the recommendations of Agriculture Ministry. The Results indicated that the productivity was high in the 4th and 3th treatments which exceeds other treatments at level 5%,. Chemical analysis of oil after one year of storage in nitrogen environment, indicated that the oil was stable and that is no self oxidation was occurred, in treatments 3 and 4 comparing with other treatments, were the peroxide values for these two treatments were 11.3 and 11.6 meq O2\kg respectively, comparing with other treatments (1,2,3) which ranged from 17.4 to 18.1 meq O2\kg and the percentages of acidity were 0.32 and 0.42 respectively. Absorbency at 270 nm wave length was less than 0.25 and this responds to IOOC for olive oil. Fatty acids (palmitic – stearic – palmitoeic – oleic – linoleic – linolenic) stay in their normal levels, and changes were at lower levels.

Keyword: Olive, Organic Fertilization (sheep dung), Olive Oil, Quality Traits, Aldeibli cv.

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