New Record of Hymenopteran Parasitoids from Larvae of Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) from Syria

Rawa Youssef (1) (2) * , Nabil Hasan Abo Kaf (1) ,Rafeek Aboud(2)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Scientific Agricultural Research Centre, Lattakia, Syria, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Rawa Youssef, E-mail:

Received: 3/01/2022       Accepted: 31/03/2022


Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a dangerous and difficult pest to manage because of the larval feeding habits, it is attacking all aerial parts of the host (leaves, stems and fruits) cultivated and wild plants with a high preference towards the species of Solanaceae plants especially tomato and other Solanaceous crops in greenhouses and fields. The aim of the study was Survey and Identification of new species of Hymenopteran Parasitoids from Larvae of Tomato Leafminer T .absoluta (Meyrick).The samples of infested tomato plants by Tomato leaf miner T. absoluta were collected from a greenhouse and fields during (March/2019 to August/2021) from Lattakia and Tartus provinces. The species were identified by using specific keys to subfamilies, genera and species, they belong to four different superfamilies: Ceraphronoidea, Chalcidoidea, Chrysidoidea, Platygastroide. And three species and two genera: Aphanogmus clavicornis Thomson, 1858 (Ceraphronoidea: Ceraphronidae) Larval actoparasitoid, Goniozus nephatidis (Muesebeck) (Chrysidoidea:Bethylidae) larval gregarious Ectoparasitoid, Pteromalus sp. Swederus, 1795 (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) larval Ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker 1838) (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) larval gregarious Ectoparasitoid, and genus  Telenomus sp. (Platygastroide: Platygastridae) egg parasitoid. The most widely spread of these species was Diglyphus isaea (95 adults)(75.39%) then genus Pteromalus sp. (9 adults) (7.1%),and Goniozus nephatidis  (6 adults) (4.7%), followed by Telenomus sp. (4 adults) (3,2%), and  Aphanogmus clavicornis )2 adults) (1,6%) These identified species in this paper is the first record of parasitoids on Tomato leafminer larvae T .absoluta (Meyrick)  in Syria

Keywords: Tomato Leafminer, parasitoid, Hymenoptera, Tomato. Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of Some Ethanol Plant Extracts and Pesticides on Aphid Insect (Brevicoryne brassicae)

Mohamed Haji* (1)  , Dahs Aiz Al- Din (1) , Zakaria Al –Naser(1)

(1). Dept.  of Plant Protraction, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria

(*Corresponding author: Mohamed Haji E-mail:

Received:18/10/2021              Accepted: 19/03/2022


The study was carried out in the laboratory of pesticides in Plant Protection Dept. Faculty of agriculture / Damascus Univ. during 2019-2020 . The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol plant extracts from leaves of Inula viscos L , Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Melia azedarach  and Tagete spatula L.  and pesticides, Thiamethoxam (Neonicotinoids), Chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Organophosphates), on Brevicoryne brassicae Linnaeus, 1758. (Hemipter: Aphididae), Azadirachtin (Nime oil) and Cypermethrin (Pyrethroids) in laboratory’s conditions. Results proved that ethanol extract of I. viscos and  E. camaldulensis, leaves significantly exceed on the all other extracts treatments on the insect of Brevicoryne brassicae. Also, Thiamethoxam insecticides was significantly exceed on the all other pesticides treatments. Efficacy of the tested ethanol plant extracts and insecticides increased by the concentrations extracts and increasing.  Results showed that the LC50 values obtained for 48 h were, 591.17 , 658.41, 816.32 and 2366.87 ppm for I. viscos, E. camaldulensis, M. azedarach and T. spatula respectively. Where, he LC50=151.54, 180.36, 220.50 and 265.32 ppm values for Thiamethoxam , chlorpyriphos ethyl, Cypermethrin and Azadirachtin respectively.

Keywords: Brevicoryne brassicae, Plant extracts, Pestcides.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Test the Pathogenicity of Isolates from Fusarium oxysporum . f. Sp. tuberosi on the Root and Stem of the Potato Plant (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Emad Altinawi(1)*, Fahed Albiski(2) and Jaoudat Faddoul(3)

(1). Department of Biotechnology, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria.

(2). National Commission for Biotechnology (NCBT), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University.

(*Corresponding author: Emad Altinawi E-mail:, ).

Received:18/05/2021              Accepted: 14/03/2022


The research was carried out in the laboratories of Plant Protection Research Directorate and the Biotechnology Department of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research during the period from April 2018 to the end of December 2019. The diseased potato plant samples (Solanum tuberosum L.) (cv. Spunta) infected by the Vascular wilt and Dry rot on the tubers were collected from many research centers AL Ghab, Tartous, and Homs, and stations Jmmaza, Jussie, Ghota and Srugaia (AL-Zabadani) of the General Commission of the Agricultural Scientific Research in Syria over two seasons 2018 and 2019. F. oxysporium  had  been defined from  the fungal community, eight isolates of F. oxysporium. f. sp. tuberosi  (FOT) monospores according to Van Dieghem by using the Hanging Drop method. Isolates were identified morphologicaly and microscopically. The pathogenicity tests of the isolates were carried out stem and roots of potato plantlets (cv. Spunta). The data was recorded on four replicate (plantlets) from each treatment in addition to the control after 60 day from infection by standard for the stems and roots between (0-5). The results revealed that isolate FOT23 was the most virulent compared with other isolates, While the isolate FOT28 was the least virulent.

Key Words: Solanum tuberosum, F. oxysporum. f. sp. tuberosi, (cv. Spunta), Pathogenicity tests, Virulence, Fusarium vascular wilt.  

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Identification of Honeybee Prevalent in Iraq According to the Geometric Morphometry Front Wing Using the Computer Program (identifly)

Muslim Ashor Al-Etby * (1) and Ayad A. AbdelKader (1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Muslim Ashor Al-Etby E-mail:

Received:25/06/2022               Accepted: 23/10/2022


This study included 13 regions: Basra, Babel and Wasit Province from Iraq. A total of 505 honeybee workers was used for this study. The geometric morphometry wing technique was used for identification Iraqi honeybee strains by applying computer program, the results of current study showed that the bee population distributed in two evolutionary lineages, the first one is   evolutionary lineage C of the northern Mediterranean and southeastern Europe, and the evolutionary linage M of the western Mediterranean and northwestern Europe. Whereas the subspecies were diagnosed to the Apis mellifera intermissa that was included in the population group of the Grendland, Al-Baradiyah, Al-Harith, Hamdan, and Yusufan region, While the Apis mellifera mellifera was identified for each of the populations of Al- Gunaina, Shatt Al-Arab, Karmat Ali and Qurna region, Whereas the Apis mellifera carnica was identified for the population group of Al- Kharbtlia, Al-Tanuma, Babel and Wasit Province, This study is considered the first time of its type in Iraq.

Keywords: Diagnose, geometric wing, morphology, Iraq, honeybee races identification, Identifly.

Full paper in English: pdf

Induction The Systemic Resistance in Tomato Hybrid Plants Againsttomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Protected Cultivation by Using The Local Bacterial Isolate Bacillus subtilisB.Ra.217

Hala Ghanem (1)*, Ensaf Akel(2), Qusay Al-Rhayeh(2) and Imad Ismail(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Hala Ghanem,   E-mail: )

Received:26/09/2021               Accepted: 23/03/2022


The research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the local bacterial isolate, Bacillus subtilis B.Ra.217 in reducing infection with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).by studying some growth parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight of Vegetative, dry, and fresh weight of the root system, and weight of fruits). This research was conducted at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Lattakia Governorate in a plastic house in season 2020/2021. The bacteria were added by seed treatment + seedlings irrigation. The result after 4 months of planting showed the effectiveness of bacterial isolate in improving the growth parameters of tomato plants, This activity was manifested in increasing the height of the plant,  the dry and fresh weight of Vegetative, the dry and fresh weight of the root system and the weight of fruits by (32.06%)، (39.26%) ،(20.8%)  (29.01%)، (20.75%)، (36.21%) respectively of the plants treated with bacteria compared with the healthy control plants. It also showed its effectiveness in increasing the height of plants the dry and fresh weight of Vegetative, the dry and fresh weight of the root system, and the weight of fruits by (46.69%)،(21.40%)،(20.16%)،(5.14%)،(26.13%)،(1.66%) respectively of the plants treated with bacteria and virus compared with the infective control plants.

Keywords: Tomato, TYLCV, B. subtilis B.Ra.217, Growth parameters.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Genetic Diversity of Dodder Using ISSR

Hala Al Zahr*(1), Fateh Khatib(1) and Naim Al Hussien(2)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Researches (GCSAR(, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Hala Al-Zahr. E-Mail: ).

Received:  11/ 12 /2021        Accepted:  15 /03  /2022


Dodder is a parasitic weed that attacks the aerial parts of plants, Crops, Trees, shrubs and weeds. The present research aimed to study the genetic diversity of dodder using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) technique, the samples collected from Aleppo, Hama and Homs, DNA was extracted from plant stems, its concentration, purity and quality were measured.  Six ISSR primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA. The results showed the efficiency of the ISSR molecular markers in showing genetic diversity, where the percentage of polymorphism for all markers was 100%, and revealed the presence of large genetic diversity among the studied samples. The similarity ratio ranged between 0.04 – 0.89. The polymorphic information content varied among the markers, the best one was IS14, (PIC = 0.4). The studied samples were distributed in the dendogram into 4 clusters, according to the host.

Key words: Dodder, genetic diversity, molecular marker, ISSR.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Bioassay of Lepidopteran larvae resistance Cry gene in transgenic zea mays

Esmail Al Daham*(1)  and Fateh Khatib(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University

(*corresponding author: Esmail Al Daham E-Mail:

Received: 11/02/2022                      Accepted:23/03/2022


Genetic engineering has been used to transfer genes from other organisms, in a way that cannot be achieved by conventional breeding, and has improved the performance of plants in the field, increasing their tolerance to certain biological and abiotic stresses. The Cry gene has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD1. It is toxic to nematode, insect pests, especially species of the order Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera, which cause significant economic losses to major crops grown around the world. This study aimed to evaluate the toxic effect of Cry gene in some maize products spread in the local market of Aleppo city that have been shown to be transgenic through molecular tests using a Mediterranean flour butterfly as an alternative host. Plastic cans divided with plastic barriers, containing 100 g of corn flour per replicate , were used in the bioassay. The second instars were transferred to the boxes (replicates), twenty larva each and the sample was repeated for three times. The boxes were covered with a piece of muslin and fixed with a rubber band. The boxes were incubated at a temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, relative humidity 50 ± 5%, illumination (16 h light: 8 h dark), and the following readings were taken: larval longevity, larval weight, corrected kill percentage, length of pupal period, and the sexual fecundity for adults. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the longest period of time for the second larval life and the death of all larva 100% when fed on corn flakes and Argentine corn kernels. It also recorded a decrease in larvae weight and the number of eggs laid by insects whose larvae fed on corn grain and its genetically modified food products comparing to the control (non-transgenic flour).Deformations were observed on the whole insect, especially on the hind wings.

Key words: Bioassay, Cry gene, transgenic maize, Mediterranean flour butterfly.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf 

Evaluation of Total and Exchangeable Cadmium Concentration in Soils of Marren Alsaleeb Dam (Hamah) and its Relationship with Principal Soil Characteristics

Mohammad Haddad*(1) , Sawsan Hayfa(2) and Ibrahim Nisafi (3)

(1). Hamah Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Mohammad Haddad, E-Mail: ).

Received: 18/10/2021       Accepted:13/03/2022


The objective of this study was to determine the contamination degree of Marren Alsaleeb dam’s soils (Hama – Masyaf) and the relation between total and exchangeable Cadmium with the physical and chemical properties of soils. Soil samples were collected from two depths (0-20 cm) and (20-40 cm) along 3 km. The study indicates that soils had different textures. Soil pH was neutral to alkaline. Soil salinity was within the normal range. Soils organic content was between (0.28-3.64%), Results also showed that total calcium carbonate content was high content. Average of the total amount of cadmium in layer ranged between (1.25 – 2.94 mg/kg). Whereas Exchangeable form was between (0.4 – 1.34 mg/kg). Cadmium was accumulated in the topsoil in most of the sampled sites. The highest concentration of Cadmium was in samples locate near the pollution source  and it exceeds  the critical limit (2 mg/kg). Cadmium accumulated in the river bed soil compared by soil of the side. There was a positive coefficient correlation between total amount and Exchangeable cadmium. Positive coefficient correlation between cadmium content with organic matter calcium carbonate  and soils clay content. Linear regression equation showed the significant R2 between the Cd fractions (Total, Exchangeable) with studied soil properties in soils of Marren Alsaleeb dam.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Cadmium, Ma’reen Alsaleeb dam, Environmental pollution.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Using the leaves of Nerium oleander L as a bioaccumulator to assess the contamination of some heavy metals in the city of Jableh (Syria)

Kamel Khalil (¹)*, Hajar Nasser (²) and Salim Mahmoud (3)

(1). Department of Environmental Prevention, Higher Institute for En, Lattakia, Syria. environmental Research, Tishreen University. Lattaki, Syria

(2). Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Environmental Chemistry, Higher Institute for Environmental Research, Tishreen, University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Kamel Khalil. E-mail:

Received: 11/12/2021              Accepted:28/03/2022


This study aimed to estimate the concentration of heavy metal elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in the leaves of Nerium oleander L. planted in the city of Jableh during the spring and autumn of the year 2020. Leaves samples were collected from five locations (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5), varying according to the traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer at the Higher Institute for Environmental Research. The results showed that the order of elemental concentrations (general average) in ppm in leaves of oleander shrubs was as follows: In the spring: Zn (37.55) > Cu (10.76) > Ni (9.24) > Pb (0.87) > Cd (0.08). In the autumn season: Zn (33.20) > Cu (16.12) > Ni (12.82) > Pb (1.34) > Cd (0.11) and the concentration of elements was higher in autumn compared to spring except for zinc. The results also showed that the values of elements were within The normal limits except for nickel and the site S3 ()bus station) was characterized by high values for all elements in general, especially in the autumn. A positive significant correlation was also recorded between lead and cadmium in both seasons (spring and autumn).As a result; it can be suggested to adopt the oleander shrubs as an accumulator for the estimation of pollution caused by heavy metal elements in the city of Jableh.

Keywords: Nerium oleander L. – bioaccumulator – heavy metals – Jableh (Syria).

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Using Water Evaluation and Planning Model (WEAP21) to Evaluate Water Deficit in Agriculture Sector of Orontes Lower Basin

Ammar Abbas(1)*, Boshra Khozam(1) and Jamil Abbas  (2)

(1). Department of natural, General commission for scientific agriculture research –resource, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Soil and Water science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Ammar Abbas, E.mail:

Received: 15/01/2021         Accepted: 18/02/2022


The research was conducted in the Orontes lower basin in the area between the Rastan dam and Syrian-Turkish border near Jisr Al-Shughour city with a total area of ​​8115 km2 to assess the current use of water resources in agriculture sector and propose future scenarios for managing these resources. 2010 was considered as a base year , then data from  Ministry of Water Resources (river flow, tributaries, natural recharge of ground water, spring flow, storage of dams ..) daily meteorological data (precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature,  wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation)  from the General commission for  Meteorology,  data from Ministry of Agriculture (land use , total agricultural tolerances, irrigated areas, crop water requirements, irrigation techniques..) and GIS databases (topographic, geological, hydrographic, soil, climate and land use) were obtained . The main data of WEAP21 were prepared (demand and supply sites, available water resources ..) and the catchment  icon was selected for basin modeling using  MABIA as integrated  model with the WEAP21  take into consideration a range of inputs including:  land use, Irrigation techniques, climatic data, soil texture, soil moisture characteristics, irrigation techniques and irrigation efficiency. The model was first calibrated and validated depending on actual production and production of the model, then unmet demand in the base year was considered to suggest future scenarios in the period (2011-2050), including Reducing areas planted with summer crops and expanding areas planted with winter crops, irrigation efficiency scenario, deficit irrigation scenario, water harvesting scenario, and treatment plant scenario. The unmet demand was 638.2 million m3 in 2010, it decreased to 526 million m3 by the year 2050 with expand of winter crops. The unmet demand is dropped gradually with an application of previous scenarios to reach 249.4 million m3 with the application of treatment plants scenario with a water use efficiency of 0.74 kg / m3.

Keywords: Orontes basin, water resources, water deficit, scenario,  WEAP, MABIA.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf