Screening of Some Syrian Wheat (Triticum Spp.) Varieties for Osmotic Stress Tolerance Using Tissue Culture Technique

Fahed Albiski*(1) Ramzi Murshed(3)  Nour Al Qabbani(1) Wasim Mohsen(2) Bassam Al Atalah(2) and Khouzama Al Kountar(2)

(1). General Organization of Biotechnology, Ministry of High Education, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Sweidaa Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fahed Albiski. E-Mail:

Received: 23/08/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of osmotic stress on some morphological parameters in eight Syrian wheat varieties (Triticum Spp.) using plant tissue culture technique. Osmotic stress was imposed by adding different concentrations of sorbitol to (C6H14O6) the culture medium (0, 110, 220,330 and 440 mM), which are equal to -0.82, -1.09, -1.44, -1.79 and -2.14 MPa, respectively on the osmotic potential basis. Plant length (cm), number of leaves, number and length (cm) of roots, plant fresh and dry weights (g), plant water and dry weight content (%) were measured. Results revealed a genetic variability in the response of the investigated varieties for osmotic stress based on the studied parameters. Progressive reduction in the studied parameters occurred as osmotic stress increased compared to the control. Cluster analysis, based on the relative values of all the growth parameters response to osmotic stress, showed three distinct groups: the osmotic stress tolerant group, which included four varieties (Doma1, Bohouth11, Bohouth8 and Guolan2); the moderately osmotic stress tolerant group, included three varieties (Doma4, Cham3 and Bohouth7) and the osmotic stress susceptible group, included one variety (Cham10).

Keywords: Screening, Wheat, Osmotic stress, Sorbitol, Tissue culture, Cluster analysis.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Changes in Some Blood Biochemical Indicators in Kurdi Rams Response of Selenium and Zinc Supplements

Zirak Mohamed Rustam khan Palani*(1) Hamid Eshag Ismael Kutaibani(2) and Faraidoon Abdul Sattar Muhamad Amin(3)

(1). Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq.

(2). Branch of Public Health, College of Veterinary, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq.

(3). Branch of Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary, University of Sulaimania, Sulaimania, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Zirak Mohamed Rustam khan Palani. E-Mail:

Received: 27/07/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing selenium, zinc and combination of them on the level of antioxidants and some blood biochemical indicators of 12 individual Kurdi rams, aged between 16 – 18 months. The rams were divided to four groups and each group contained 3 rams. The control group, basal diet without Se and Zn, the second group selenium (sodium salinate) was added as 0.5 mg / kg of feed, the third group zinc (zinc sulphate) was added as 100 mg/kg of feed, and the fourth group selenium with zinc were added as 0.5 + 100 mg/kg of feed, then given by gelatinous capsules daily for 90 days. Blood samples were taken from the rams (three for each treatment), on the 30 days, 60 days and before ending the feeding trails (90 days). The results showed a significant increment in Testosterone hormone, blood urea, glutathione (GSH) and Malondialedhyde (MDA) in the blood serum in the groups that added Se, Zn and combinations of them to the feed compared to the control group. An increase in the concentration of the Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) in blood serum in the groups that added Se, Zn and combination of them to the feed compared to the control group. In addition, the total protein in the blood serum did not differ significantly between treatments on the 30, 60 and 90 days of the experiment. The results concluded that the addition of selenium and zinc supplements improved significantly of the situation of antioxidants, Testosterone hormone and some serum biochemical indicators of Kurdi rams.

Key words: Selenium, Zinc, Kurdi rams, Biochemical indicators.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Vol 5 No 4 December 2018

  Vol 5 No 4 December 2018
Pages Contents
1-14 Response of Peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) to Different Types and Doses of Boron Fertilizer under Deficit Irrigation Conditions

Wael Fahme AL Rhman Al Shoummary and Aiymen Ahmed AL-Abassi*

15-28 -The Effect of Covering Rows with Polyethylene on Growth and Productivity of Two Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes

Ahmad Jarjanazi* and Safaa Arafa

29-41 -Effect of Plant Density and Phosphate Fertilizer on Some Chemical Characteristics of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Mohamead Abd ELAziz and Hala Mohammad*

42-56 -The Effect of Growth Regulator, Time Collection and Type of Cutting on Rooting of Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) Male Tree Cutting


Imad Bilal*


57-69 -Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique to Detect Sheep Meat Adulteration

Raghdaa Aslan, Naiem Al Hussein, Fateh Khatib, Mustafa Asaeed and Asmaa Maaz*

70-86 -Screening of Some Syrian Wheat (Triticum Spp.) Varieties for Osmotic Stress Tolerance Using Tissue Culture Technique

Fahed Albiski, Ramzi Murshed,  Nour Al Qabbani, Wasim Mohsen, Bassam Al Atalah and Khouzama Al Kountar

87-96 -Changes in Some Blood Biochemical Indicators in Kurdi Rams Response of Selenium and Zinc Supplements

Zirak Mohamed Rustam khan Palani*, Hamid Eshag Ismael Kutaibani and Faraidoon Abdul Sattar Muhamad Amin

97-105 -Prevalence of Ringworm Infection in Camels under Release Breeding System in Syria

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*

106-113 -Effect of Different Levels of Dry Onion Powder in the Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio (L.1758) Fish Diets on Growth Rate and Food Conversion

Qusay Hamid Al-Hamadany*

114-129 -The Economic Estimation of Cost Functions in the Long Run and Scale Economies of Almonds in Homs Governorate

Khetam Idris*

130-143 -Measuring Technical Efficiency of Wheat, Barley and Lentil Production Farms at Al-Zerbeh Region in Aleppo

Abdullah Al-Youssef*, Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban, Jamila Dirbas, Abdulatef Al-Assaf, Isam Khalifeh and Yasmeen Naal

144-157 -Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Seedlings Response to Potassium and Foliar Spray of Methanol under Drought Conditions Induced by Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG-6000)

Fadi Abbas *,  Entessar AL-Jbawi and Mahmoud Al-Hamdan

158-165 -Effect of Different Flour and Milk Additives from Soybean in Improvement of Chemical and Quality Characteristics of Bread

Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem*

166-178 -Phytochemical Detection of Active Ingredients in the Syrian Medicinal Plant Tribulus terrestris L. from the Family Zygophyllaceae

Abdel Aleem Bello*

179-190 -Estimation of the Trees Height of Cupressus sempervirens L. Using the Mathematical Modelling in Misiaf Region

Ali Thabit*

191-204 -Irrigation Programming Using WEAP – MABIA Model in Al-Kabir Alshamali Basin, Syria

Marina Al-Ali*, Jamil Abbas, Emad Kubeli and Hussen Saleh

205-216 -Harvesting and Spreading of Water in Closed Contour Dykes for The Development of Vegetation Cover and Desertification Reduction in The Syrian Badia

Atef Abdul Aal*, Linda Droubi and Ameera Al-Khazaal

217-226 -The Effect of Different Types of Organic Fertilizers on Some Soil Properties and Olive Trees Productivity in Homes Province, Syria

Dima AlSaid, Nisreen Nikedly, Nabila Kredi, Malak Jzaeirly, Huda Masalati, Salwa Wabeh, Lama AlZein, Bushra Khozam and Muhammad Manhal AlZoubi*

227-239 -Effect of Three Species of Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in of Stimulating Systemic Resistance Against Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) of Tomato Plants

Ramez M. Al Shami*, Imad D. Ismail and Yaser Hammad

240-250 -Determination of the Optimum Laboratory Conditions for the Production of Crystal Protein by Bacillus thuringiensis KS3 Isolated from Iraqi Soils

Khlood Abid-Alelah Alkhafaji*, Samera Oda Khleoy, Safaa Abid Alrahem Mahmoud, Shaemaa Rajab Farhan, Sabreen Abid Alhadi Saleh and Mohamed Abid al- Rahem Abiallah

251-264 -The Efficacy of The Integration of Plant Extracts, Chemical Pesticides and Releasing The predator Phytoseiulus persimilis A-H in Controlling The Population of Tetranychus urticae K on Tomato in The Greenhouse Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Saqr, Magedah Mohammad Mofleh, and Randa Suleman*

265-275 -The Efficacy of Some Fungicides, Insecticides, Acaricides and Foliar Fertilizers Against Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

Atie Arab*, Rawa Youssef and Deena Faeud

276-287 -The Effect of Legume Type, Energy Level, and Period of Exposure to Microwaves on the Response of Cowpea Weevil

Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Bruchidae: Coleoptera)

Emad Q. AL-Ebady* and Marwa M. Abdallah

288-296 -Evaluation of Local Isolates of Beauveria bassiana

(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) As control Agent for Potato Tuber Moth

 Phthorimaea operculella (Gelechiidae:Lepidoptera) Under Non-refrigerated Storage conditions

Nisreen Alsaoud*, Doummar Nammour and Ali Yaseen Ali

297-307 -Variance, Heritability, Genetic Advance and Correlation of Some Phenological, Morphological and Productivity Traits in Some Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes

Mohammad Nael Khattab*


-Phosphate Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions by Syrian Zeolitic Ore:  Kinetic Study

Zyad Hatem*, Leila Habib and Mohammad Ghafar

321-328 -The Bacterial Fact of Sawa Lake in Samawa City Southern Iraq

Asaad M. R. Al-Taee*,  Eman A. Al-Emara and Anwar A. Maki

Morphological and Histological Study of the Gonads Maturation Stages in the Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782)in the Coastal Water of Latakia

Waad sabour*(1)

(1). Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Waad sabour. E-Mail:

Received: 07/08/2018                           Accepted: 05/09/2018


This study was carried out on /516/ fish individuals of Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782), which were caught from the Coastal water of Latakia province (Levantine basin) from December 2014 to November 2015, to identify the evolution stages of sexual maturity (by morphological and histological methods) and determine the spawning period of this important economic species. The results showed that Scomber japonicus begin with sexual maturity from the beginning of February and extend until mid-May, with a single peak in Mars. The average value of the gonado-somatic index (GSI) was (12.46 ± 1.52)% for males and (13.21 ± 3.9)% for female in Mars. And the total body length at sexual maturity was (21.5) cm for males, and was (23.5) cm for females. The development stages and gonad maturation in this specie, are similar with regard to the tissue and the form of gonads and according to the six gonad maturation steps.
Key words: Scomber japonicus, morphological, Histological, Maturation sexual, Latakia Coastal water.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Immunofluorescence Expression of PCNA Marker in Melanic Tumors of Compared With CD31 Marker 

Raouad Yousef Moussa*(1)

(1). Homs Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascis, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Raouad Yousef Moussa. Email:

Received: 09/04/2018                                             Accepted: 03/08/2018


PCNA is synthesized in early G1 and S-phases of cell cycle. Tight linkage to cell proliferation has led to the investigation of its role in the evaluation of tumors for prognosis. The aim of this study is to use computerized image analysis to measure PCNA and CD31 antibodies in a series of canine melanocytic tumors to assess density of marked cells by these antibodies, and to correlate density of marked cells with malignant degree of these tumors through comparative study between CD31, PCNA and microscopic aspect. 12 dog melanic tumors were diagnosed during the period 2001–2010 in Pathology Department USAMV Cluj-Napoca, for PCNA expression study, and 10 samples of them were treated with CD31 marker by immunohistochemical for comparative study. Immunohistochemical method is staining the tissue sections by primary antibody CD31 and develop process with DAB Chromogen and alkaline phosphatase Chromogen. Immunofluorescence method is staining the tissue sections by primary antibody PCNA and develop process with fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody-Rhodamine. Images were captured by using a microscope (Olympus BX51). All dog melanic tumors were positive with PCNA marker. 58% were positive according to Proniewska’s classification. All melanic tumors had a low grade of PCNA according to John’s classification. The high values of mitosis concurrent approximately with big values of PCNA percentages in majority cases. The malignant melanoma had high PCNA percentages than melanocytoma. The epithelioid type cell had big PCNA percentages comparatively with other type cells. There wasn’t any relationship between necrotic zones and infiltrated lymphocytes and PCNA percentages. The high percentages of PCNA had in majority cases a big number of micro vessels /fields marked by CD31. The malignant melanoma had a big number of vessels/field and high percentages of PCNA than melanocytoma. There wasn’t any relationship between grade of PCNA and percentage of vessel area / total area, Average of perimeter and average of vessel area. PCNA and CD31 markers had a significant effect in evaluation of aggressive of tumors.
Keywords: Immunofluorescence, dogs, PCNA, CD31.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Constant Temperature on The Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Predator Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)

Mohammad Ahmad(1) Majeda Mohammed Mofleh(2) and Hiba Makhlouf*(3)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture. Tishreen University, Latakian, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Latakian, (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hiba Makhlouf. E-Mail:

Received: 04/07/2017                       Accepted: 17/09/2017


The effect of temperature on the development of the predator Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) reared on the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera:Aphididae) was determined at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35)°C under laboratory conditions. The present study was conducted at Latakia Agricultural Research Center during 2015 and 2016. This study aimed to determine the impact of temperature on the development of the predator H. variegata to identify the suitable temperature for rearing this predator. The duration (days) and survival (%) were measured for this predator. Results showed that temperature had a significant effect on the development of H. variegata immature stages, whereas the development time from larvae to adult decreased with increasing temperature at thermal range (15-35)°C. The longest larval developmental duration was 24.84 days at 15°C, and the shortest duration was 4 days at 35°C. Also, the shortest pupal duration was one day at 35°C and the longest period was 9.84 days at 15°C. The lowest developmental time from eggs hatching to emergence of adults was 6 days at 35°C, while the longest developmental time was 36.84 days at 15°C. Also the ratio of larval survival was affected by temperature, this ratio was (26%, 52%, 77%, 34%, 4%) at (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35)°C respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the five constant temperatures in all studied biological characteristics, and the temperature 25°C was suitable for a successful rearing of the predator H. variegata.
Key Words: Natural enemies, Hippodamia variegata, Myzus persicae, Life cycle, Survival, Coccinellidae, Aphididae.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Isolation of local Bacillus spp. Strains and Testing its Efficiency Against Wax Worm Galleria mellonella L. Larvae in Laboratory

Mohammad AL-Allan*(1) Nouraldin Daher-hjij(1) Nabeel Beig(1) Mahabba Ghannam(2) and Adel Almanoufi(2)

(1). Department of Entomology, Administration of Plant Protection Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Plant Diseases, Administration of Plant Protection Research, GCSAR., Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad AL-Allan. Email:

Received: 05/06/2018                                               Accepted: 05/08/2018


This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of local Bacillus isolates to control large wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella L.) at GCSAR laboratory in 2012. Infected larvae were collected from stored wax combs, and the bacteria Bacillus genus were isolated from dead larvae, or that showing disease symptoms of black brown spots on larvae cuticle. Bacterium was grown on T3 medium and identified according to biochemical tests, and the efficacy of isolates was determined on pure colonies of larvae. The results of biochemical tests showed that the isolates belong to Bacillus thuringiensis. Isolates were different in pathogenicity. Bt5 isolate was the most efficient to kill the larvae of large wax moth (72.4 %), and significantly superior all other isolates (p ≤ 0.01). Bt1 isolate showed a significant difference with control but non-significant difference with Bt2, Bt3, Bt4, Bt6 and Bt7 isolates.
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Wax worm, Local isolates.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

The Efficacy of Some Plant Extracts, Pesticides and Natural Enemies in Controlling of Tetranychus urticae Koch Populations on the Greenhouse Tomato

Ibraheem Aziz Sakr(1), Mageda Muhammad Mufleh(2), Randa Ahmad Suliman*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Randa Ahmad Suliman. E-Mail:

Received: 28/12/2017                                         Accepted: 10/04/2018


This study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous extracts of three plants (Melia azedarach L., Smilax asepra L. and Styrax officinalis L.), three pesticides (acetamiprid, abamectin and pyridaben) and releasing of two predators (Phytoseiuls persimilis Athias–Henriot and Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant) in controlling of Tetranychus urticae Koch populations in tomato greenhouse. At 1st week of applications, S.officinalis and M.azedarach extracts showed a significant efficacy of 64.79 % and 56.45 %, respectively, as well as a decline in the efficacy of the S.aspera extract was noticed (35.26%). The killing percentage reached up to 68.95% under the treatment of acaricide, and pyridaben after 24 hours of the treatments and exceeded up to 80 % at the 1st week, simultaneously the abamactin showed high percentage (65.33 % and 78.43 % after 24 hours and 1st week, respectively), while the efficacy of the pesticide acetamiprid was very low and reached the highest record of 37.28 % at the 1st week. The efficacy of the predators P. persimilis and S. gilvifrons simultaneously increased and controlled T.urticae populations three weeks after treatment, and P. persimilis showed more efficiency (53.72 % and 58.12% for P. persimilis and 35.71 % , 47.11% for S. gilvifrons, in the 3rd and the 4th week, respectively). The M. azedarach extracts was superior to all plant extracts with a significant difference. The efficacy of the treatments of both the plant extracts and the chemical pesticides reduced significantly in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks, as well as the natural-origin compound abamectin recorded high efficacy with no significant difference with the treatment of the specialized acaricide pyridaben, while there was a significant difference comparing with the other treatments.
Keywords: Plant extract, Chemical pesticides, Predator release, Tetranychus urticae, Stethorus gilvifrons, Phytoseiulus persimilis.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

The Impact of Landfill on the Revival of Ancient Oases in  Southern Tunisia

Nissaf Karbout*(1) Donia Gandoubi(2) Nathem Brahim(3) Mohammed Mousa(4) and Habib Bosnina(4)

(1). National Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Tunisia.
(2). Arid Area Institute. Tunisia.
(3). Faculty of Science, Tunisia.
(4). Development and Environment Center, Burn University. Tunisia.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nissaf Karbout. E-Mail:

Received: 30/05/2018                       Accepted: 06/09/2018


A field experiment was carried out according to complete randomize block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates during three years 2014, 2015 and 2016 in Nafzaoua region in southern Tunisia, to study the impact of soil reclamation processes on soil and the production of Daklat El Nour. The results showed a decrease in the salinity ratio throughout the years of the experiment. In contrast, the palm tree had several important morphological changes, and the production increased up to 70%.
Keywords: Oasis, Southern Tunisia, Landfill.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Comparison Study of Alum and Coagulants (Ferric Chloride, and Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACL)) on Turbidity Elimination in Water Stations

Adawya Abdul-Kareem*(1) Kamal Nada(1) Abdul Kareem Al-Wazan(1) Shhad Riyadh Zaki(2) and Manal Malik Sadoon(3)

(1). Water and Environment Directorate, Ministry of science and technology, Iraq.
(2) Faculty of Woman Science, Iraq.
(3) Faculty of Education, Iraq.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Adawya Abdul-Kareem. E-Mail:

Received: 04/02/2018                                          Accepted: 19/05/2018


This research focused on one of the stages of the conventional treatment of water in the purification stations, a process of coagulation, which enhanced by using alternatives to alum; such as Ferric Chloride and Poly Aluminum-chloride (PACl), which play an important role to reducing the turbidity of drinking water through the destabilization of colloids, which include organic and inorganic materials in order to increase the efficiency of sterilization and disposal of the side effects of sterilization (DBPS) and to minimize the problems of clogged sand filters due to an increase of the turbidity of water inside it. According to that, three types of coagulant agents were used for the purpose of comparison with each other to achieve the best efficiency in the process of reducing water turbidity through a process of coagulation improved by using (Jar-test). Different concentrations of coagulant agents of irrigation water were used depending on experiments. The results found that urinary chloride aluminum gave the highest efficiency in reducing turbidity by (84, 82 and 81%) according to the addition of concentration for coagulation (20 ppm, 10 ppm and 5ppm), respectively. The reduction rates in turbidity for Ferric chloride were (79, 78.2 and 78.1% ) by concentrations added, respectively, but for alum, the reduction rates in turbidity were (58, 56, and, 54%) by concentrations added, respectively.
Key words: Coagulants, Ferric Chloride, Turbidity, Water station.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF