The Chemical, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Refrigerated Chicken Breast Meat Treated with Sodium Lactate and Tri Sodium Citrate

Chaea Othman(1) and Zaid Khidhir*(2)

(1). General Directorate of Veterinary and Animal Wealth, Sulaimani, Ministry of Agriculture. Krg. Iraq.

(2). Animal Sciences Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani. Krg.Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Zaid Khidhir. E-Mail:

Received: 27/05/2017                                 Accepted: 19/09/2017


The current study aimed to use two types of organic acids, sodium lactate and tri sodium citrate, for the purpose of prolonging the storage life of the fresh chicken breast meat. Chicken samples were treated with different concentrations of these acids by spraying and immersing. The samples T1 and T3 were treated using sodium lactate 2% (dipping and spraying) respectively, while T4 and T5 treatments using sodium lactate 4% (immersing and spraying) respectively, T6 and T7 treatments using tri sodium citrate 1% (dipping and spraying) respectively, and T8 and T9 treatments using tri sodium citrate 2.5% (dipping and spraying) respectively. Each meat sample was treated with those organic acids for 10 minutes, then the samples were kept refrigerated at 4 ° C for different storage periods (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7) days. During storage time, chemical, microbial and sensory tests were conducted. On the seventh day of storage, treatment T1 recorded the highest PH value, while T6 and T9 gave the lowest PH values. During the same period, T9 and T7 recorded the lowest count of total bacteria, while T1 achieved the highest number of total bacteria. For psychrotroPHic, T4 performed less well than T1, T6, T8 and T9, which recorded the highest count of bacteria. In terms of sensory evaluation, there were non-significant differences between the studied traits except in color. The study concluded that sodium lactate and tri sodium citrate can be used to treat chicken breast meat to prolong its storage time in the fridge.

Key words: Sodium lactate, Tri sodium citrate, Chicken breast meat, Storage period.

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Methods for Maintaining Insect Cells Sf9 and its Morphological Characterization

Manal Saleh*(1)

(1). General Organization of Biotechnology, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Manal Saleh. E-Mail:

Received: 04/10/2016                                 Accepted: 18/11/2016


The insect cell lines have a great importance in scientific research such as: Physiological and biological studies, producing biopesticides and vaccines, biotechnology and toxicology. The insect cell line Sf9, is derived from an immature pupal ovarian tissue of Spodoptera frugiperda. These cells were cultured, sub-cultured (more than 23 subculture) and cryopreserved. Morphological characterization of Sf9 cells were performed by using three staining methods i.e. Trypan blue, Wright, and Giemsa. Three different shapes of Sf9 cells were observed and they were: Spherical cells (large and small ones); fibroblast-like cells, and phagocytic cells. Two different populations of cells were identified in Sf9 cell cultures according to nuclear number: Mononucleated and polynucleated to ensure cells surviving.

Key word: Sf9 insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda, Subculture, Cryopreservation, Morphological characterization.

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First Record of Labidostomis diversifrons Lefevre Beetle on Pistachio Trees in Syria

Mazen Bofaur*(1) and Rami Bohamdan(1)

(1). Sweida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mazen Bofaur. E-Mail:

Received: 26/02/2017                                 Accepted: 14/09/2017


Field survey has been conducted on a few orchards of pistachio vera in Sweida Governorate, Syria. The results of survey showed an expansion of new insect species for the first time in Syria, the leaf beetle Labidostomis diversifrons Lefevre, 1876 (Chrysomelidae; Coleoptera) which has been recorded on the trees of pistachio vera. The species classified depending on morphological features of entire insects, which caused direct injury to the leaves, and made the trees weakness and leafless. Different recourses have been observed for feeding, the beetle feeds on grasses such as: Lactuca virosa and Polygonum arenastrum.

Keywords: Labidostomis diversifrons L., pistachio vera, beetle, morphological features, Lactuca virosa, Syria.

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Evaluation the Impact of Both Predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard and Chilocorus bipustulatus L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Controlling Citricola Scale Insect Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) and Olive Scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera:Coccidae) on Citrus, Syria

Shadi Deeb(1) Rafik Abboud*(1) Majeda Mofleh(1) and Muhammed Ahmad(2)

(1). Latakia Agriculture Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rafik Abboud. E-Mail:

Received: 30/07/2017                                 Accepted: 10/11/2017


The citricola scale Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) and the olive scale insect Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are considered economically important pests on citrus in the Syrian coast. This study was carried out at Ciano Research Station, Latakia Research Center/Syria, to evaluate the efficiency of the predators Serangium parcesetosum (Sicard), and Cilocorus bipustulatus L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to control both of pests within the cages. The study included six treatments, with three replicates per treatment. Citrus grasses isolated individually within cages, and infested in the first, second and third treatment by adults of citricola scale, and in the fourth, fifth and sixth treatments by adults of olive scale. The adults of S. parcesetosum were released after 30 days of the infection, in the first and fourth treatments, while the adults of C. bipustulatus were released in the second and fifth treatments at a rate of 2 adults/grass per a week, but the third and sixth treatments adopted as a control for comparison. The results showed the ability of the predators feeding on nymphs first age for each of the pests, and they were able to reduce the intensity of citricola scale nymphs by 97.8 and 99.2% in both predators C. bipustulatus and S. parcesetosum two weeks after the release, respectively, while the rate of decline in the control was 29.2% during the same period. Black scale nymph’s density also decreased by 99.9 and 99.4% in the treatments of predators C. bipustulatus and S. parcesetosum after three weeks of the launch, respectively. The results of this study showed the ability of each of predators C. bipustulatus and S. parcesetosum in control citricola scale and olive scale on citrus.

Key words: Biological control, Citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, Olive scale, Saissetia oleae, Serangium parcesetosum, Cilocorus bipustulatus.

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Use Some Mathematical Models to Describe the Infiltration Process in Different Land Uses and Different Moisture Levels

Magda Bashir Elbeshti*(1) Ali Ahmed Belhaj(1) Abeer Fayez Alkrekshe(1) and Siham Ibrahim Asker(1)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Magda Bashir Elbeshti. E. Mail:

Received: 03/05/2017                                 Accepted: 03/10/2017


This study was conducted to measure the rates of infiltration in the soil of four different areas in use, and at different moisture levels, and to test some of the mathematical models that describe them at Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tripoli, Libya. The different uses of the studied lands were: land sown with cereal crop, land planted with olive trees, land used as a passageway for the passage of agricultural machinery and equipment, and land of the cowshed. The aim of this study was to describe the efficiency of some mathematical models to study the effect of different land uses and moisture content on the infiltration rates, and determine their ability to describe the infiltration process in some Libyan soils. The rate of infiltration was measured using the double ring apparatus (Measured), while Horton, Philip, and Kostiakov models were used to estimate the infiltration rates. The results showed that both land use and moisture content had an effect on the infiltration rates. This effect was evident on the estimated and measured infiltration rates. The estimated values were higher or lower than the measured values during the experiment, but the differences were not significant according to F test at (P=0.05) level pf probability, except for the infiltration rates estimated by Phillip model at the site grown with cereal crop, after rainfall. There were significant differences compared with the measured. The constants or parameters of these models also differed by changing the initial moisture content (before and after rainfall) and from site to site. When examining the effect of the initial moisture content change on the behavior of these models, the results showed that the efficiency of these models increased with the increase of the initial moisture content according to the coefficient of determination (R2) and the correlation coefficient (r).When examining the effect of land use on these models, there was a difference in the behavior of the model from one location to another as a result of different in soil construction resulting from different use. Soil samples have been taken from sites for chemical and physical analysis to determine their properties. The results showed that there were no significant differences at (P= 0.05) between the measured infiltration rates in the field, calculated using Horton model before and after rainfall in all sites despite the low in (r) between them before the rain, while (r) values after the precipitation raised up to (0.67, 0.78, 0.71, 0.65) in trees site, pathway, cereal crop and cow barn, respectively. The model constants (i0, ic, k) differed according to moisture content. Kostikove model behaved as Horton model in all the sites studied, whereas, the differences between the infiltration rates of this model and the double ring were non-significant at (P= 0.05) before and after rainfall, and the variability was different at different levels of moisture, also its constants (⍺, K)  differed at different levels of moisture. However, the change of the constant K at the site of cereal crop after the rainfall is different from the other sites, and (r) values generally increased after the rain. While, the behavior of Philip model differed according to the different locations and levels of moisture. F test at (P= 0.05) showed significant differences between the estimated and the measured of this model in the location that grown with cereal crop after the rainfall only, while the differences were not significant in the rest of the sites before after rainfall, (r) values also decreased before and after rainfall compared with other models.

Key words: Infiltration rate, Double ring, Moisture content, Horton model, Philip model, Kostikov model.

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Using Gradual Drought Technique to Discriminate Moisture Stress Tolerance Capacity of Some Barley Genotypes

Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban(1) Abdullah Al-Youssef*(2) Naim Al-Hussein(2)

Yaman Jabbour(2) Saleh Saleh(2) and Hiba Al-Atrash(2)

(1). Dept. of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Addullah Al-Youssef.  Email:

Received: 03/11/2016                                 Accepted: 21/12/2016


Gradual drought experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at a Field of Crop Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria, during 2016 season to compare transpiration rate of eight barley genotypes. Relations between Normalized Transpiration Ratio (NTR) and Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW) were determined using linear plateau models. Results showed that, there were differences in the curve of relation between NTR and FTSW for the studied genotypes. The lowest threshold values were 0.43 for Furat 5 genotype, while the highest value was 0.64 for Araby Aswad genotype. Also, Araby Aswad genotype had the minimum decreasing in wet biomass after gradual drought imposing, where the decreasing in biomass was (19.3%), followed by Furat 3 (31.5%). Whereas, decreasing ratio in other genotypes exceeded 65%, and ranged between 66.5% for Furat 2 genotype to 80.3% for T6669 genotype.

Key words: Gradual dehydration, Transpiration ratio, Water stress threshold, Barley.

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Response of Some Spectral Vegetation Indices (Broad and Narrow Band) of Wheat Crop under Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilization Factors

Eyad Al-Khaled* (1) Yousef Nemr (2) and Iman Alhumaer(3)

(1). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Crops Field Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Planning and International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MAAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Al-Khaled. E.Mail.

Received: 09/09/2016                                 Accepted: 16/10/2016


A field experiment was conducted at the General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus countryside, Syria, during 2013/2014 season, using some spectral indices i.e. NDVI, SRI, EVI, NDVI705, mSR705, mNDVI705, to determine the spectral response of wheat plant throughout its different developing stages under the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, also using spectral indices in predicting yield, and study the correlation between the spectral indices, and some vegetative and productivity characteristics. The FieldSpecPro RS3 was used to record the radiometric characteristics, each 15 days, also some vegetation indices were recorded (Leaf Area Index LAI, fresh and dry weight, and chlorophyll content in leaves), starting from the beginning to the end of plant growth, besides the yield and yield components at harvest. It was noticed that the performance of all spectral indices was similar, they were low at the beginning of plant growth, then increased to reach their maximum values at the vegetative stage, then decreased again with the development of plant growth and harvest. Nitrogen fertilizer showed a significant effect on spectral indices at the first plant stages, N0 gave the lowest values, while N1, N2, and N3 gave a highest value. In terms of irrigation levels (I1, I2, and I3), a very low difference in spectral indices was noticed at the first plant stages, but the differences began to appear after 97 days from sowing, because of the addition of irrigation during tillering stage. The results showed high significant correlation between the different indices and LAI and fresh weight, it was positive with EVI, at 0.05% level of significance. It was noticed that all three spectral indices had a relation with water content, but the dry weight showed a positive correlation but not significant. It has been found a high significant correlation between the indices and grain yield at each radiometric measurement except after 62 and 208 days after sowing, which are accompany with the first and last stages of growth plant, respectively. It is also noticed that NDVI, recorded the highest correlation values after 145 days from sowing, but the other indices mNDVI705, mSR705, NDVI705, EVI, and SR recorded the highest correlation values after 165 days from sowing, which coincides with the maximum vegetation growth. With respect to yield prediction, it has been found that the best linear model was with the SRI index after 145 from sowing, besides the spectral indices SRI and mSR705 which also gave a good prediction linear model after 165 days from sowing.

Keys Words: Vegetation indices, Broad band, Narrow band, Yield Prediction, Wheat.

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Using Simulation Model PGSGC to Predict the Productivity of Rainfed Wheat Genotypes at Different Zones in Aleppo

Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban*(1) Abdullah Al-Yousef(2) and Ahmad Haj Suliman(2)

(1). Department of Processing Data and Statistical Analysis, Center for Strategic Studies and Research, University of Aleppo. Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Community for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding other: Dr. Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban. E-mail:

Received: 21/09/2016                                 Accepted: 27/10/2016


This study was conducted to predict evapo-transpiration and rainfed wheat production in Aleppo province, Syria, using PGSGC (Plant Growes Small Grain Crops) simulation model under different scenarios, which contains different zones: Zone A (Yhmoul), zone B (Zerbeh) and zone C (Sfireh), and three sowing dates: early (first half of Nov.), medium (second half of Nov.), and late (the first half of Dec.), and two different wheat genotypes, one was early, while the other was late in maturity. The simulation was conducted during 1998-2015 using daily minimum and maximum temperatures, solar radiation, and rainfall. The simulation outputs showed a clear variation in the curves of the development of cumulative evaporation, cumulative transpiration, and dry matter accumulation (biological, and grain yield). The beginning of water stress was determined in days, besides the period which had a low fraction of transpirable water (FTSW). The evapo-traspiration varied between 207.9-220.9 mm at Sfireh, whereas, they ranged between 231.1-248.9 mm at Zerbeh, and ranged between 279.4-296.1 mm at Yahmoul. Evaporarted water was determined as ratio of total rainfed quantities varied according to different scenarios. The estimated values ranged between 57-64% at Sfireh, 52-58% at Zirbeh, and 41-49% at Yahmoul. The Grain yield decreased when using early maturity genotype at early sowing date by 395, 393, and 538 kg/ha when sown at the medium date. Also, the grain yield decreased by 640, 656, and 927 kg/ha when sowing date delayed to late date at Sfireh, Zerbeh, and Yhmoul, respectively. The lowest loss in grain yield achieved (19%) by delaying sowing date, and using late maturity genotype at Yhmoul. This loss accounted about 48 kg/ha when delaying sowing date from early date to medium date. This loss accounted about 17.12 thousand tons for the cultivated areas of rainfed wheat at Izaz (Yhmoul) region during 2014/2015 season.

Key Words: Simulation Model PGSGC, Evapo-transpiration, Sowing dates, Stability zones, Rainfed wheat genotypes.

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Utilization Chicken Gizzard Lining Immobilized Pepsin for Soft White Cheese Manufacture

Mohammed Zyarah Eskander*(1)

(1). Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Basra University, Basra, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammed Eskander. E-Mail:

Received: 19/08/2017                                 Accepted: 03/10/2017


The study included the extraction of pepsin EC: chicken gizzard lining type Broiler, using extraction solution (4% boric acid, 0.5% sodium benzoate and pH 5.6) at a rate of 4:100 (w/v). Enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate at 20-60% saturation. The proteolytic activity and milk-clotting activity of pepsin were 23.786, 2.653 (units/ml) respectively, and the rate of (milk-clotting activity/proteolytic activity) was 8.965. The effects of pH and temperature on the milk-clotting activity were also evaluate. The extracted pepsin showed the highest milk-clotting activity at pH 5 and 50 oC. The results indicated that milk-clotting activity decreased with the increment in NaCl concentration. The partially purified and chicken gizzard lining immobilized pepsin were utilized in soft cheese manufacture and compared with calf rennet, the results showed an increase in the percentage of soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen in the partially purified pepsin cheese, compared to the immobilized pepsin and calf rennet during the storage periods of 1, 3 and 7 days at 5 o C. Also, the results of the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of cheese produced by the immobilized pepsin was compatible with calf rennet.

Key words: Pepsin, Chicken gizzard, Milk-clotting activity, Soft white cheese.

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Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Cactus (Aloe vera) Leaves Extract Against Pathogenic Bacteria

Alya Jameel Ali Al-Saad*(1) and Nada Fawzi Abdulkareem(2)

(1). Department of food Science/  college of Agriculture/ University of Basra.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Alya J.A. Al-Saad. E-Mail:

Received: 08/06/2017                                 Accepted: 15/09/2017


The study included the preparation of two types of cactus (Aloe vera) leaves extracts, which are an aqueous extract, and alcohol extract. The research was conducted at Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Iraq, in April. The active compounds were detected in these extracts i.e., altanin, Alcocseid, reducing sugars, saponins and flavonoids, which all gave a positive result, then the antioxidant activity of water and alcohol extracts were estimated in different concentrations ranged (1-5) mg/ml, and were compared with BHT compound, which gave the highest antioxidant activity reached 88% at the concentration of 5 mg/ml, followed by alcoholic extract 78%, and the least achieved by the aqueous extract of 65% at the same concentration. The micrological tests were estimated for different concentrations of extracts and different isolates from the pathogenic bacteria )Klebsiellapneumonia ,Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli(. The alcohol extract gave the highest inhibitory effect on E.coli then Staphylococcus aereus. The highest inhibitory effect of the water extract was on E. coli, then Micrococcus roseus. The performance values ​​of antioxidants in the beef meat product were evaluated by the estimation of peroxide value of product stored at a temperature of 4˚C and treated with different concentrations of alcoholic extract, which accounted 0.912 m equivalent/kg oil, at the highest concentration, and after 10 days of cool storage.

Key Words: Antioxidant activity, Microbiological tests, Cactus Aloe vera.

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