Morphological and Histological Study of the Gonads Maturation Stages in the Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782)in the Coastal Water of Latakia

Waad sabour*(1)

(1). Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Waad sabour. E-Mail:

Received: 07/08/2018                           Accepted: 05/09/2018


This study was carried out on /516/ fish individuals of Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782), which were caught from the Coastal water of Latakia province (Levantine basin) from December 2014 to November 2015, to identify the evolution stages of sexual maturity (by morphological and histological methods) and determine the spawning period of this important economic species. The results showed that Scomber japonicus begin with sexual maturity from the beginning of February and extend until mid-May, with a single peak in Mars. The average value of the gonado-somatic index (GSI) was (12.46 ± 1.52)% for males and (13.21 ± 3.9)% for female in Mars. And the total body length at sexual maturity was (21.5) cm for males, and was (23.5) cm for females. The development stages and gonad maturation in this specie, are similar with regard to the tissue and the form of gonads and according to the six gonad maturation steps.
Key words: Scomber japonicus, morphological, Histological, Maturation sexual, Latakia Coastal water.

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Immunofluorescence Expression of PCNA Marker in Melanic Tumors of Compared With CD31 Marker 

Raouad Yousef Moussa*(1)

(1). Homs Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascis, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Raouad Yousef Moussa. Email:

Received: 09/04/2018                                             Accepted: 03/08/2018


PCNA is synthesized in early G1 and S-phases of cell cycle. Tight linkage to cell proliferation has led to the investigation of its role in the evaluation of tumors for prognosis. The aim of this study is to use computerized image analysis to measure PCNA and CD31 antibodies in a series of canine melanocytic tumors to assess density of marked cells by these antibodies, and to correlate density of marked cells with malignant degree of these tumors through comparative study between CD31, PCNA and microscopic aspect. 12 dog melanic tumors were diagnosed during the period 2001–2010 in Pathology Department USAMV Cluj-Napoca, for PCNA expression study, and 10 samples of them were treated with CD31 marker by immunohistochemical for comparative study. Immunohistochemical method is staining the tissue sections by primary antibody CD31 and develop process with DAB Chromogen and alkaline phosphatase Chromogen. Immunofluorescence method is staining the tissue sections by primary antibody PCNA and develop process with fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody-Rhodamine. Images were captured by using a microscope (Olympus BX51). All dog melanic tumors were positive with PCNA marker. 58% were positive according to Proniewska’s classification. All melanic tumors had a low grade of PCNA according to John’s classification. The high values of mitosis concurrent approximately with big values of PCNA percentages in majority cases. The malignant melanoma had high PCNA percentages than melanocytoma. The epithelioid type cell had big PCNA percentages comparatively with other type cells. There wasn’t any relationship between necrotic zones and infiltrated lymphocytes and PCNA percentages. The high percentages of PCNA had in majority cases a big number of micro vessels /fields marked by CD31. The malignant melanoma had a big number of vessels/field and high percentages of PCNA than melanocytoma. There wasn’t any relationship between grade of PCNA and percentage of vessel area / total area, Average of perimeter and average of vessel area. PCNA and CD31 markers had a significant effect in evaluation of aggressive of tumors.
Keywords: Immunofluorescence, dogs, PCNA, CD31.

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Effect of Constant Temperature on The Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Predator Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)

Mohammad Ahmad(1) Majeda Mohammed Mofleh(2) and Hiba Makhlouf*(3)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture. Tishreen University, Latakian, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Latakian, (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hiba Makhlouf. E-Mail:

Received: 04/07/2017                       Accepted: 17/09/2017


The effect of temperature on the development of the predator Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) reared on the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera:Aphididae) was determined at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35)°C under laboratory conditions. The present study was conducted at Latakia Agricultural Research Center during 2015 and 2016. This study aimed to determine the impact of temperature on the development of the predator H. variegata to identify the suitable temperature for rearing this predator. The duration (days) and survival (%) were measured for this predator. Results showed that temperature had a significant effect on the development of H. variegata immature stages, whereas the development time from larvae to adult decreased with increasing temperature at thermal range (15-35)°C. The longest larval developmental duration was 24.84 days at 15°C, and the shortest duration was 4 days at 35°C. Also, the shortest pupal duration was one day at 35°C and the longest period was 9.84 days at 15°C. The lowest developmental time from eggs hatching to emergence of adults was 6 days at 35°C, while the longest developmental time was 36.84 days at 15°C. Also the ratio of larval survival was affected by temperature, this ratio was (26%, 52%, 77%, 34%, 4%) at (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35)°C respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the five constant temperatures in all studied biological characteristics, and the temperature 25°C was suitable for a successful rearing of the predator H. variegata.
Key Words: Natural enemies, Hippodamia variegata, Myzus persicae, Life cycle, Survival, Coccinellidae, Aphididae.

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Isolation of local Bacillus spp. Strains and Testing its Efficiency Against Wax Worm Galleria mellonella L. Larvae in Laboratory

Mohammad AL-Allan*(1) Nouraldin Daher-hjij(1) Nabeel Beig(1) Mahabba Ghannam(2) and Adel Almanoufi(2)

(1). Department of Entomology, Administration of Plant Protection Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Plant Diseases, Administration of Plant Protection Research, GCSAR., Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad AL-Allan. Email:

Received: 05/06/2018                                               Accepted: 05/08/2018


This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of local Bacillus isolates to control large wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella L.) at GCSAR laboratory in 2012. Infected larvae were collected from stored wax combs, and the bacteria Bacillus genus were isolated from dead larvae, or that showing disease symptoms of black brown spots on larvae cuticle. Bacterium was grown on T3 medium and identified according to biochemical tests, and the efficacy of isolates was determined on pure colonies of larvae. The results of biochemical tests showed that the isolates belong to Bacillus thuringiensis. Isolates were different in pathogenicity. Bt5 isolate was the most efficient to kill the larvae of large wax moth (72.4 %), and significantly superior all other isolates (p ≤ 0.01). Bt1 isolate showed a significant difference with control but non-significant difference with Bt2, Bt3, Bt4, Bt6 and Bt7 isolates.
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Wax worm, Local isolates.

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The Efficacy of Some Plant Extracts, Pesticides and Natural Enemies in Controlling of Tetranychus urticae Koch Populations on the Greenhouse Tomato

Ibraheem Aziz Sakr(1), Mageda Muhammad Mufleh(2), Randa Ahmad Suliman*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Randa Ahmad Suliman. E-Mail:

Received: 28/12/2017                                         Accepted: 10/04/2018


This study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous extracts of three plants (Melia azedarach L., Smilax asepra L. and Styrax officinalis L.), three pesticides (acetamiprid, abamectin and pyridaben) and releasing of two predators (Phytoseiuls persimilis Athias–Henriot and Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant) in controlling of Tetranychus urticae Koch populations in tomato greenhouse. At 1st week of applications, S.officinalis and M.azedarach extracts showed a significant efficacy of 64.79 % and 56.45 %, respectively, as well as a decline in the efficacy of the S.aspera extract was noticed (35.26%). The killing percentage reached up to 68.95% under the treatment of acaricide, and pyridaben after 24 hours of the treatments and exceeded up to 80 % at the 1st week, simultaneously the abamactin showed high percentage (65.33 % and 78.43 % after 24 hours and 1st week, respectively), while the efficacy of the pesticide acetamiprid was very low and reached the highest record of 37.28 % at the 1st week. The efficacy of the predators P. persimilis and S. gilvifrons simultaneously increased and controlled T.urticae populations three weeks after treatment, and P. persimilis showed more efficiency (53.72 % and 58.12% for P. persimilis and 35.71 % , 47.11% for S. gilvifrons, in the 3rd and the 4th week, respectively). The M. azedarach extracts was superior to all plant extracts with a significant difference. The efficacy of the treatments of both the plant extracts and the chemical pesticides reduced significantly in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks, as well as the natural-origin compound abamectin recorded high efficacy with no significant difference with the treatment of the specialized acaricide pyridaben, while there was a significant difference comparing with the other treatments.
Keywords: Plant extract, Chemical pesticides, Predator release, Tetranychus urticae, Stethorus gilvifrons, Phytoseiulus persimilis.

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The Impact of Landfill on the Revival of Ancient Oases in  Southern Tunisia

Nissaf Karbout*(1) Donia Gandoubi(2) Nathem Brahim(3) Mohammed Mousa(4) and Habib Bosnina(4)

(1). National Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Tunisia.
(2). Arid Area Institute. Tunisia.
(3). Faculty of Science, Tunisia.
(4). Development and Environment Center, Burn University. Tunisia.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nissaf Karbout. E-Mail:

Received: 30/05/2018                       Accepted: 06/09/2018


A field experiment was carried out according to complete randomize block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates during three years 2014, 2015 and 2016 in Nafzaoua region in southern Tunisia, to study the impact of soil reclamation processes on soil and the production of Daklat El Nour. The results showed a decrease in the salinity ratio throughout the years of the experiment. In contrast, the palm tree had several important morphological changes, and the production increased up to 70%.
Keywords: Oasis, Southern Tunisia, Landfill.

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Comparison Study of Alum and Coagulants (Ferric Chloride, and Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACL)) on Turbidity Elimination in Water Stations

Adawya Abdul-Kareem*(1) Kamal Nada(1) Abdul Kareem Al-Wazan(1) Shhad Riyadh Zaki(2) and Manal Malik Sadoon(3)

(1). Water and Environment Directorate, Ministry of science and technology, Iraq.
(2) Faculty of Woman Science, Iraq.
(3) Faculty of Education, Iraq.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Adawya Abdul-Kareem. E-Mail:

Received: 04/02/2018                                          Accepted: 19/05/2018


This research focused on one of the stages of the conventional treatment of water in the purification stations, a process of coagulation, which enhanced by using alternatives to alum; such as Ferric Chloride and Poly Aluminum-chloride (PACl), which play an important role to reducing the turbidity of drinking water through the destabilization of colloids, which include organic and inorganic materials in order to increase the efficiency of sterilization and disposal of the side effects of sterilization (DBPS) and to minimize the problems of clogged sand filters due to an increase of the turbidity of water inside it. According to that, three types of coagulant agents were used for the purpose of comparison with each other to achieve the best efficiency in the process of reducing water turbidity through a process of coagulation improved by using (Jar-test). Different concentrations of coagulant agents of irrigation water were used depending on experiments. The results found that urinary chloride aluminum gave the highest efficiency in reducing turbidity by (84, 82 and 81%) according to the addition of concentration for coagulation (20 ppm, 10 ppm and 5ppm), respectively. The reduction rates in turbidity for Ferric chloride were (79, 78.2 and 78.1% ) by concentrations added, respectively, but for alum, the reduction rates in turbidity were (58, 56, and, 54%) by concentrations added, respectively.
Key words: Coagulants, Ferric Chloride, Turbidity, Water station.

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Removing of Heavy Metals from Sewage Water Using Chitosan Extracted from Crustacean Waste

Adel Al-Dubakel(1) Sabah Al-Shatty*(2) and Jalal Al-Noor(1)

(1). Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Faulty of Agriculture, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq.
(2). Department of Food Science, Faulty of Agriculture, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Sabah Al-Shatty. E-Mail:

Received: 24/09/2017                           Accepted: 23/03/2018


The biological role of chitosan which was prepared by chemical method from shrimp waste Penaeus semisulcatus and the outer skeleton for marine crab Portunus pelagicus in some industrial and agricultural applications were studied. The concentration of prepared chitosan was 1% (w/v) at pH (4 and 8) for 12 hours in precipitation and chelating heavy metals (Lead, Zinc, Iron, Cupper and Cadmium) from of sewage water. Concentration of elements was measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer ) FAAS). The results of the study indicated that the concentration of the water elements was high before treated with chitosan. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in element concentration percentage after treated with crab chitosan. In contrast, shrimp chitosan displayed a minimum effect on decreasing the amount of heavy metals. Moreover, the results showed that the higher percentage for mineral adsorption was at pH (4 as compared with 8). The results confirmed the possibility of using chitosan in chelate and precipitate the mineral ions from polluted water.
Key words: Heavy metals, Sewage, Chitosan, Crustacean.

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The Effect of Adding Organic Residues, and Foliar Spray with Boron and Zinc on Some Soil Characters, Fruitlets Ratio, and Some Fruit Qualitative Traits in Starking delicious Apple Cultivar in Sweida

Samer Kiwan*(1) Nadim Khalil(2) and Bayan Muzher(3)

(1). Sweida Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Agriculture Scientific Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Soil Sciences Department, Faculty of Agriulture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.
                                                            (*Corresponding author:

Received: 16/12/2017                             Accepted: 06/07/2018


The study was carried out in apple orchard and at the laboratories of Agricultural Scientific Research Center, and Pome and Grapevine Division in Sweida (GCSAR), Syria, during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016 to study the effect of organic residues, and boron and zinc addition on some soil characters, fruit set ratio and some fruits qualitative traits in Starking delicious apple cultivar in Sweida. The results revealed a significant decrease in soil-pH. And an increase in organic matter content compared with other treatments. A significant increase was observed in boron and zinc contents with the addition of organic residues and foliar spray application of boron and zinc (0.95 and 1.805 mg/kg, respectively), compared to control (0.505 and 0.926 mg/kg, respectively). The results revealed a significant increase in the rate of fruitlets in organic residues and foliar spray of boron and zinc together (38.18 %) compared with control (13.93%), while a significant increase was noticed in fruit weight in foliar spray of boron and foliar spray of zinc (236.8 g and 220.6 g, respectively), compared with control (187.9 g). The results revealed a significant increase in fruit firmness in organic manure and foliar spray of boron and zinc (8.087 kg/cm 2), and total soluble solids (15.22%) compared with other treatments. On the other hand, organic residues with foliar spray application of boron and organic residues with foliar spray of boron and zinc significantly achieved the highest value in total sugars (13.17% and 13.93 %, respectively) compared to the control (11.03%), while the results showed a significant increase in titratable acidity in the control (0.30%) compared to the other treatments. Consequently, the result showed that the addition of these fertilizers improves some soil characteristic, rate of fruitlets and some of the quantitative and qualitative traits of apple fruits.
Keywords: Apple, Foliar spray, Fruit set, Organic manure, Boron, Zinc.

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Studying Functions and Utilisations of the Vegetation in Al-Kahf Protected Area (Tartous-Syria)

Zuheir Shater*(1) Bassima Al Chikh(1) and Dimah Najjar(1)

(1). Department of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Zuheir Shater. E-Mail:

Received: 18/02/2018                     Accepted: 12/05/2018


The aim of this study was to study the plant species diversity at Al-Kahaf protected area in A-Sheikh Badr region, Tartous governorate, in terms of functional characteristics of the recorded plant species, its uses. The results can contribute in understanding, and determining the role of those plant species for ecosystem function and local community and help in the management of this protected area. Plant species diversity was studied on three versants; using the intercepted line method; and in the watercourses surrounding Al Kahaf castle. Additional surveys have also been conducted over the whole site. Life forms, dispersal types, and the uses of these species were recorded. The recorded species belong to 53 plant family. Fabaceae was the most represented family (17 species), followed by Asteraceae (12 species), and Lamiaceae (11 species). The number of families represented by one species was 29 species. The dominance life form on different slopes of the studied site was herbs (H) of 52%, followed by trees (T) 18%, shrub (S) and bulbs (B) of 11% for each, and liants (L) of 7%. The zoochores were the most present dispersal type on the studied versants of (57%), followed by barochores (22%), then anemochores (21%). On the other hand, the study recorded 56 medicinal species, 33 were ornamental species, 30 were grazing species, and 27 were edible species, while the number of poisonous species was 7 species, representing 37, 21, 20, 18 and 4% of the total number of species respectively. The results of this study can be incorporated into the management plan of the protected area.
Key Words: Al Kahaf reserve, Life form, Dispersal type, Slope effect, Plant biodiversity, Syria.

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