Efficient Use of Different Levels of the Primary Nutrients (N, P, K) on the Yield and Quality of Cotton (Aleppo 124) in Hama and Ghab

Samia Alshbib(1)*, Abd alghani Khorshid(2), Ahmad Aljomaa(1), and  Abd alghani Khaldi(1)

(1) Cotton Research department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Aleppo, Syria. email:

(2) University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Sami al shbib. E-Mail: samshbib3@gmail.com)

Received:4/09/2021            Accepted:15/12/2021  


A field experiment was carried out in 2020 at two sites, the first at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Hama, and the second at the Jub Ramla Research Station follow to the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Al-Ghab, according to in randomized block design with three replications. The experiment aimed to study the response of the technological characteristics of the cotton crop (Aleppo 124) in Hama and Al-Ghab to changes in the level of fertilizer added from macronutrients (N, P, K), in addition to knowing the change in the fertilization efficiency index at different levels of application.  The results showed that the fertilization efficiency is affected by the change in the levels of the added fertilizer, where the highest percentage of it was in treatment G (more than the fertilizer recommendation by 15%) in Hama site, which reach to 48.88%, while in the site of Jeb Ramla there were no significant differences in the fertilization efficiency between treatments. Some of the qualitative characteristics of cotton fibers were affected by the different fertilization rates. the length of staple increased in both locations, Hama and Jeb Ramla. The differences were not far between the treatments for fiber strength, and its highest value was in Hama and Jub Ramla (23.30 and 23.87 gr/tex) respectively. There were no significant differences for Micronaire among the studied fertilization treatments. The elongation character was affected in both sites of Hama and Jib Ramla, it was (6.987 and 6.933) %, respectively when fertilizing more than 30% fertilizer recommendation. The results of the uniformity characteristic differed between the two sites, as there were significant differences between the treatments at the Hama site, the highest value for this trait when treated was more than the fertilizer recommendation of 45%, and there was no significant difference between the treatments at the Jub Ramla site. Ginning rate The differences between the experimental treatments were significant in the Hama site, where the highest ginning rate was 43.77%, and as for the the Jub Ramla site, there were no significant differences for experimental treatments in this trait

Key words: fertilization efficiency, technological characters, ginning rate, micronaire.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Influences of Some Ectoparasites on Vitamin B12 and Iron Levels of the Local Goats (Capra hircus).

Bawan Abdalrahman(1)*, Bahzad Mustafa(1), Sarwar Sadq(1) and Karzan Ahmed(1)

(1) Animal Sciences Department-College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences of Sulaimani University, Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq.

(*Corresponding author:  Dr. Bawan abdalrahman E-mail: Bawan.abdalrahman@univsul.edu.iq)

Received: 12/02/ 2021                   Accepted: 18/03/ 2021


Vitamins and trace elements have an essential role in animal feeding and vitality, and despite their scarcity in animals and humans, their ratio varies according to disease and physiological circumstances. In the current experiment, 50 infested goats with external parasites (ticks, lice, and mixed infestation) and 50 control goats were examined. The huge load sites of the louse were chest and shoulders, while ticks were ound around the ear of infected goats. Females of both ectoparasites; tick and louse were widely seen on the infested goat males male. The vitamin B12 level was reduced in all infested goats (mixed, tick and lice) by 183.08±1.03pg/dl, 184.06±3.63pg/dl, and 187.91±2.12pg/dl, respectively, and showed significant differences at p≤0.05 level when compared to the control goats, however, there were no significant differences among them (mixed, tick and lice). With regard to iron levels, mixed infestation, tick, and lice-infested goats show a decrease in their levels; 45.34±5.23µg/dl, 61.27±8.22µg/dl and 67.31±7.38µg/dl respectively, with the presence of significant differences at P˂0.05 level versus control goat, also mixed infestation has significant differences with lice infestation at P˂0.05 level. The present result reveals that vitamin B12 and iron levels are reduced either as primary or secondary effects of these ectoparasites.    

Keywords: Ectoparasites, Vitamin B12, Iron, Local Goat.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Economic Analysis of Sugarcane Crop Production in Elguneid Scheme,Sudan (1997-2017)

Elsayed E.M. Elnagarabi *(1 ) and Ghada A.B.E. Tarab(2)

(1) Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan.

(2) Elgunid Scheme, Gezira State, Sudan.

(*Corresponding author: Elsayed Elsir Mustafa Elnagarabi E-mail: elsayedelsir218@gmail.com  )

Received: 4/04/ 2021                   Accepted: 26/05/ 2021


The main objective of this paper was to estimate Cobb-Douglas production function and supply response function of sugarcane for Elguneid Scheme during the period1997-2017 The paper utilized time-series data obtained from the scheme’s statistics reports and publications and depended on quantitative analysis. Results revealed that irrigation, labour, fertilizer, pesticides and cultivated areas affected sugarcane production. The coefficient of determination R2 was 0.99% implies that there is highly positive relationship between production and the above variables. The supply response in the long run is inelastic. The paper recommends vertical and horizontal expansion of sugarcane production, introduction of smart technologies and adoption of good quality sugarcane varieties policies for sugarcane production and productivity.

Keywords:Cobb-Douglas production functionsupply response function  time series data, vertical and horizontal expansion, smart technologies.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Determining the Primary Inoculum Source of Fusarium solani Causing Pistachio Seedlings Death in Nurseries and Testing the Effectiveness of Some Control Methods

Abeer Ghanem(1)  and Walid Naffaa(1)*

(1) Damascus University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Damascus,

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Walid Naffaa, E-mail: walid1851966@yahoo.com)

Received: 16/ 09/ 2021                   Accepted: 7/12/ 2021


This study was carried out in Kom Al-Hasa nursery in Sweida governorate. The aims of this study were: (i) determining the primary inoculum source of Fusarium solani, the cause of pistachio seedling death, (ii) testing the effectiveness of some chemical and biological control methods. The results showed that the pistachio seeds are the main source of infection, where the disease incidence was 42.86% when using unsterilized seeds obtained from the nursery, while there weren’t any infected plants in all treatments which not subjected to artificial infection. The infection by F. solani significantly reduced the average of plant height, vegetative weight and root weight compared to the control under artificial infection conditions. On the other hand, the efficacy of pistachio seed treatment with Carbendazim and Thiophanate – methyl (Topsin) fungicides and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum in reducing the disease incidence was 83.71%, 45.69% and 38.89% respectively. Treatment with Trichoderma and Carbenazim significantly increased the studied growth parameters, while treatment with Thiophanate – methyl did not have any positive effect on plant growth.

Key words: Fusarium solani, pistachio, nurseries, inoculum source, control.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Classification of the Scolytus species that attack fruit trees in the southern region of Syria.

Abeer alabdallah(1),  Wajih alKassis(1)* and Abdulnabi Basheer(1)

(1) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Dr. Wajih al Kassis. alkassis@yahoo.fr)

Received: 26/05/2021                          Accepted: 5/09/2021


Fruit trees are exposed to many insect pests, especially after the recent drought, the most important of these insects are those that attack wood, among them the most widespread are wood bark insects, and due to the lack of studies on this topic, it was necessary to study the species that attack these trees in several regions. The study was conducted to survey and identify species of Bark beetles (Scolytus spp) from Scolytidae in southern region of Syria in many places (Damascus, Countryside of Damascus, Homs, Alswida and Daraa during  2018 – 2020, Samples of adults were collected during the period from April to October. All specimens were identified by using international keys of Scolytidae. Adults were classified in 3 species S.amygdali, S.mali, S.rugulosus.

Keywords: Classification, survey, Scolytidae, Scolytus ,southernregion -Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of some plant extracts in Inducing Systemic Acquired Resistance to Peacock Leaf Spot in Olive

Kenan naema(1)*, Mohamad tawel(2) and Basima barhoom(3)

(1) General commission of scientific agricultural research, Tartous, Syria.

(2) Tishreen University, College of Agricultural Engineering, Latakia, Syria.

(3)General commission of scientific agricultural research, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Kenan naema. kenan.fadel.naema@gmail.com)

Received: 21/10/2021                          Accepted: 28/12/2021


This study was carried out at Al-Jamasa Research Station – Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Tartous – General Authority for Scientific Agricultural Research for the season 2018-2019 on two-year-old olive plants, homogeneous, healthy, and free from disease and insect infestations, of the Doabli variety most prevalent in Tartous Governorate.  The trees were treated with Inula viscosa and Cymbopogon citrates aqueous extract 15 days before the fungal infection with Venturia oleaginea. The incidence and severity of infection were weekly monitored within 10 weeks after the infection. The results showed that the best resistance was achieved when olive trees were treated with Inula viscosa aqueous extract as the incidence of the disease was 16.64% and the severity was 8.90 % after 10 weeks compared with 56.06 and 26.91 respectively for control, followed by the treatment of Cymbopogon citrates aqueous extract with disease incidence 18.41 % and disease severity 11.2 %.

Key words: Venturia oleaginea, Cymbopogon citrates, Inula viscose, aqueous extract, systemic acquired resistance

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Additional mite records (Acari: Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes, Trombidiformes) from Syria

Rania Ebraheem(1), Aghnar Khador(1), Yousef Hanna(1), Lujain Dwya(1), Ghaith Nakoul(1), Ziad Barbar* (1)

(1) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Ziad Barbar E-Mail: ziadbarbar88@gmail.com)

Received: 2/05/2021                          Accepted: 24/08/2021


The present study is a part of a collection of mites fauna aimed to identify species that occurred on some cultivated plants and wild vegetation in Tartus governorate, Syria in November and December 2020. The results showed the presence of thirteen mite species belonging to six families, of which four species are new records for Syrian mite fauna: the predatory mite Blattisocius dendritic (order Mesostigmata, family Blattisociidae) collected on Solanum melongena; the predatory mite Euseius finlandicus (order Mesostigmata, family Phytoseiidae) collected on Castanea sp.; the predatory mite Glycyphagus domesticus (order Sarcoptiformes, family Glycyphagidae) collected on Quecus sp.; and the phytophagous mite Cenopalpus tamarixi (order Trombidiformes, family Tenuipalpidae) collected on Pinus pinea. Morphological measurements and complementary description is given for this later species.

Keywords: new record, Blattisocius dentriticus, Euseius finlandicus, Glycyphagus domesticus, Cenopalpus tamarixi, Syria

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

The Effect of Augmentative Release of Predator Chrysoperla Carnea (Steph.) on the Development of Its and Its Prey Community in the Cotton Field

Baraa’a Hawis(1) (2)*, Ziad Chikh-Khamis(2) and Monir Alnabhan(3)

(1) Directorate of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Hama, Syria.

(2) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Alba’ath University, Homs, Syria. 

(3) Center of Scientific Agriculture Research, GCSAR,Hama, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Baraa Hawis. E-Mail: b.gazihawis@yahoo.com).

Received: 8/06/2021                          Accepted: 23/08/2021


Effect of augmentative releasing of the lacewing,Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.), on the density of the predator and the populations of its prey in the cotton field was studied in 2017 in Hama using three treatments: (T1l) releasing the predator by 1000 larvae (at 2ndinstar), per 1000m² once a season;(T2l) releasing the predator by 500 larvae per 1000m²twice a season at one-month interval;(Te) releasing eggs of the predator at 1000 eggs per 1000m²once a season; and (C) the control field without any release. The predator releasing reduced the numbers of whitefly nymphs Bemisia tabaci in the three trea tments,The releases in treatments (T1l andTe) reduced the numbers of whitefly nymphs one week after the release by 84% and 89.31%respectively. However, aweek after the second release in T2l, the reduction rate became 76.9 and the differences between the three treatment were not significant. The treatments reduced the aphid Aphis gossypii population densities compared with the control. The largest reduction rate was one week after predator release in T1l, followed by Te 89.07%, 73.46% respectively. While one week after the second release, the reduction rate in T2l was higher than T1l and Te (significantly) by a reduction rate  57.55% . Then, the reduction rates in the three treatments increased gradually until the end of the season. The densities of the C. carnea eggs laid by endemic predators naturally in the treatment blocks decreased throughout the season after releasing of the predator compared with the control. There was a significant linear correlation between the endemic predator egg densities and their prey population densities (whitefly and aphid) in the cotton field.

Keywords: Cotton, Augmentative releasing, Chrysoperla carnea, Bemisia tabaci, Aphis gossypii.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of Mineral Fertilizers and Spraying with Humus on some Productivity Traits of Maize (Var. Ghouta 82)

Haya AL-shumari(1)*, Akram Albalkhi (1), and Muhammad Manhal Alzoubi(2)

(1) Department of Soil Sciences,  Damascus University, Syria.

(2) General Authority for Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria,

 (*Corresponding author: Haya AL-shumari. E-Mail: hayaalshemary92511@gmail.com).

Received: 22/04/2021                          Accepted: 30/11/2021


The Experiment was conducted during the 2019 season at Salou Station- Deir  Ezzor of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research. This research aims to study the possibility of using organic fertilizers instead of some part of mineral fertilizers. The impact of in-part use of organic fertilization on yield and yield components of Zea Maize crop (Ghouta 82) was studied. A complete randomized block design was applied in which the experiment consisted of 5 treatments with 3 replications: (D0: control, D1: mineral fertilizer 100%, D2: 100% mineral fertilizer +humic acids KOH extract, D3: mineral fertilizer 75% + humic acid KOH  extract, D4: mineral fertilizer 50% + humic acid KOH extracts. Sheep humic acid extracts were added to the crop at a rate of 2.5 ml/l. The results showed that the D2 treatment was the best for both productivity and all the morphological characteristics. The productivity was (7.96) t/ha for D2 treatment compared to the control (3.07) t/ha. The results also showed that there were no significant differences between D1, D3. D3 treatment was the lowest rate of mineral fertilization. It is therefore, treatment D3  can be recommended to minimize the use of mineral fertilizers added to the soil in a situation similar to our experimental conditions.

Keywords: Zea  Maize, Spraying with Humus, Mineral Fertilizers, productivity.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Studying the Pinus brutiaTen. forest fire behavior in Lattakia (Syria) using Geographic Information System

Lama Ehssan* (1) Ilene Mahfoud  (1)  Wael Ali  (1) , and Ahmed Saidi  (2)

(1) Ecology and Forestry department, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia-Syria.

(2) Algerian space agency, Space Technology Center, Arzew- Algeria.

(*Corresponding author Lama Ehssan. E-Mail: ehssan.lama@gmail.com)

Received: 30/09/2021                          Accepted: 9/12/2021


This research aimed to study the fire behavior of two Pinus brutia forests in Lattakia Alshorttah and Alfollk forest, These forests were affected by fires during the summer of 2016. Depending on the Fire Spread Index (FSI) and the Fire Spread Time (FST) as the main outputs of the fire simulation model, which was designed by ArcGIS 10.3 software, based on the following parameters: Wind Speed (WS), Wind Direction (WD), Index of Combustibility (IC), Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) and in addition to the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), Slope (S), and Aspect (AS). The results showed that the fire behavior was affected by the degree of fire spread danger at the ignition point, also showed an increase in fire spread rate with the change of the west aspect to the south one at the same degree of slope. It was also noted, that the Fire Spread Index danger was increased due to the Moisture Content Index danger increasing on the edges of the forest near the agricultural lands. We conclude from this study the efficiency of designed model for studying fire behavior and determinate the spread rate in the studied forests.

Keywords: Fire Behavior, Pinus brutia, Fire Simulation Model, Fire Spread Index, GIS.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf