The Impact of Economic Liberalization Policy in the Productive and Economic Indicators of the Citrus Crop in Syria

Ismail Mohamad  Omran*(1), Ghassan Kalil Yacoub(1) and        Mahmoud Mostafa Alio (1)

(1). Dep. Agricultural Economics., Fac. Agric., Tishreen University., Lattakia, Syria.         

(*Corresponding author: Eng: Ismail Mohamad Omran E.mail:

Received: 18/06/2020                                 Accepted: 19/07/2020


     The aim of this research was to identify the impact of the economic liberalization policy on the requirements of agricultural production and the total costs and the net dunum yield of the citrus crop, in addition to studying the impact of this policy on productive and economic indicators, depending on secondary data issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Reform in Syria for a time series (2004-2017), as it was divided into three phases: (2004-2007), (2008-2011), (2012-2017), and the study also used descriptive statistical analysis methods (averages, and percentages, difference coefficient), and indicators of economic efficiency and productivity, and the results showed an increase in the costs of production requirements by (949.68)% due to the increase in subsidies by the state over production requirements, and in contrast, the net dunum yield decreased by (38.9)% compared to the period before the economic liberalization, and The study showed that the application of economic reform policy and programs led to a decrease in the total revenue ratio to the total costs of the citrus crop at a rate of about (25.7)% compared to the pre-liberation period, while the rate of increase in the total costs amounted to (361.2)%, and this led to an increase in the average cost 1 kg citrus fruits from (7 SP) to (30 SP), and it was clear from this that the implementation of the liberalization policy led to an increase in the average cost of 1 kg citrus fruits by (328.6)%, as for production indicators, at the time they increased In it the area cultivated with citrus fruits increased by (32.1%), and production increased by (31.3). The productivity per hectare remained almost constant with a very slight increase rate of about (0.4)% compared to the period before the economic liberalization.

Keywords: Agriculture Support, Agricultural Politics, economic Liberalization, Production costs.                                                                                             

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Prediction of tobacco crop production in Syria using (ARIMA) model analysis

Majd Namaa (1)* , Ghassan Yacoub (1) and Ayman Achouch(2)

(1) Dep. Agricultural Economics., Fac.     Syria   Agric., Tishreen Univ., Lattakia, Syria.   

(2)  Professor,Dep. Statistics and Programming , Fac. Economic., Tishreen Univ., Lattakia,  Syria.   

(* Corresponding auther: Ibrahim Mhanna. E-mail:

 Received: 20/01/2020                          Accepted:22/03/20


The objective of the research is was  to predict the production and area of ​​tobacco production in the Syrian Arab Republic for the period (2019-2027) using ARIMA analysis, based on time series data on production and cultivated area for the period 1975-2017.The research was based primarily on the secondary data of FAO, based on the descriptive method of analysis in both descriptive and quantitative terms, using the linear analysis of the time series regression function in its various mathematical images, as well as using Box-Jenkins method to predict future values ​​of production The maximal Likelihood Estimation (MLE) for Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models.Results showed that the best predictive models of production and cultivated area during the required period were ARIMA (2.2,2)According to the selected model, the production volume in 2019 will reach 9130.9 tons between a minimum of 3056.9 tons and a maximum of 15205.0 tons, and it will continue to decline until 2025 to reach 920.0 tons and increase again in 2026 to 6766.4 tons between a  minimum of 6579.3 tons and a maximum of 7932.0 tons, and then returns to decline again in the year (2027) to 2281.4 tons.The cultivated area will reach 2,736.9 hectares in the year 2019 to a minimum of 3010.4 ha and a maximum of 11,236.5 ha. It will continue to decline until 2088 to reach 3588.5 hectares. This will increase again in 2026 to 4966.7 hectares between a minimum of 4553.5 ha and maximum of 10487.0 hectares and it is expected  to decline in 2027 to reach 3830.5 hectares between a minimum of 3623.6 and maximum of 10284.5 hectares.

Keywords: Tobacco, Prediction, Time series, Models of Box Jenkis, ARIMA.

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Feasibility Study of Apricot Cultivation In Lattakia Governorate

Adham Ryad Alhayek *(1), Mohsen Jahjah (1) and  Omar Farosi (1)

 (1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tishreen University, Latakia, syria.                                                                                                                                                           

(*Corresponding author: eng. Adham Al-Hayek: Email:

Received: 28/12/2019                                 Accepted: 09/06/2020


This research aimed to calculate some feasibility indicators of apricot cultivation in Lattakia Governorate, during the year 2019 through questionnaires was distributed to 347 farmers within the four regions (Lattakia – Al-Hafah – Qardah – Jableh), where it was found that the profit rate reached 60.2%, which was good percentage and the productivity of farm productivity accounted 2.51, and the rentier factor based on production costs was 166.97%, while the profitability factor based on production costs was 151.66%, and marketing costs constitute the largest part of production costs by 46.92%, while the costs of harvesting occupy the second rank by 25.14% of total costs As a result, we must work to enhance apricot cultivation in Lattakia Governorate in mountainous areas, especially the liberated areas, which were rehabilitated and replanted with fruit trees.

Key Words: Apricot – Lattakia – Production Costs – feasibility study.

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Using Factorial Analysis to Study the Factors Affecting the Production of Fruit Trees in the Syrian Coast

Mahmoud Amoudi * (1) and Talib Ahmed (2)

 (1). Department of Statistics and Programming, Faculty of Economics, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*corresponding author: Mahmoud  Amoudi.

Received: 28/7/2020                   Accepted: 06/09/2020


The aim of this research is to study and analyze the production of fruit trees and the factors affecting their production on the Syrian coast, in order to reach the most important production variables and factors affecting it using factor analysis, in addition to trying to arrive at the nature of the relationship between the production of fruit trees and the factors affecting them in the Syrian coast (Lattakia and Tartous) Based on data published by the Central Bureau of Statistics and periodic reports by the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform for a time series extending between (2000-2016). The results of the study showed the possibility of reducing the variables of fruit tree production in the Syrian coast from 8 variables to 4 basic factors, and reducing the variables of the factors affecting the production of fruit trees also in the Syrian coast from 9 variables to 3 basic factors, in addition to reaching by studying the relationship between tree production Fruits and factors affecting them using the multiple regression model indicated that there was a significant effect of natural, economic and human factors on the production of figs, apricots, grapes and citrus fruits, but they did not affect the production of apples, cherries, olives and pomegranates.
Key words: Factor analysis, fruit tree production, The syrian coast.

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Economic Efficiency of Olive Oil Marketing at the Producers’ Level in the Coastal Region of Syria

Ghasan Baddour (1)*, Gahasn Yacoub (1) and  Mahmoua Alio(1)

(1) Dep. Agricultural Economics,Fac. Agric, Tishreen Univ., Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Ghasan Baddour E-mail:

Received: 3/04/2020                                   Accepted: 11/05/2020


The research aimed to study the marketing chain of olive oil and evaluating its effectiveness at the producer’s level, using quantitative and descriptive analysis methods, and this based on preliminary data collected in 2018 from a regular stratified sample of 350 farmers distributed in Lattakia and Tartous villages, according to their contribution to the total olive oil production. The results showed that the marketing options available to farmers focused on six marketing episodes, the most important of which was the wholesaler, the olive oil presses and the consumer, which demanded about 36.7%, 18.9% and 18.5% of the total quantities offered by the producers. The demand for the quality types of oil presented by the producers differed between these episodes, where the demand for the extra virgin oil was distributed in all these marketing episodes, and focused in the wholesalers’ one by 30.4%. While the demand for good olive oil was distributed in five ones and concentrated in the wholesalers and olive oil presses by 43.9% and 31% in each, respectively.  As for ordinary oil, it was limited to four episodes, and focused on both of wholesalers and consumers, at 37.2% and 30.4% each, respectively.  This was in light of the demand of companies and exporters focusing on extra and good olive oil by 100% and 82.7% of its total purchases of olive oil, respectively. In general, marketing costs decreased at the level of producers, estimated at about 78.8 SP / kg, as they constituted only about 7.5% of the total costs, and were mainly concentrated in packing costs by (50.9%), while the rest was distributed between storage and transportation costs by 26.6% And 22.5% each. In parallel, the producers were able to achieve a net profit of about 19% on average, and this indicator has increased to reach its maximum limit in the case of selling to exporters and companies by an value of 681.4 SP / kg and 570.3 SP / kg each, respectively. While the producers exposed to a net loss in the case of selling to presses estimated at -19 SP / kg. In the same context, the marketing efficiency increased according to the cost index, reaching 92.5% at the total sample level. While this efficiency decreased according to the sales value index, estimated at only 16.1%, its  minimum value was in the case of selling to presses estimated at -1.9% only, while its maximum value was estimated at 38.5% and 34.5% in the case of selling to the exporters and companies respectively. In general, the elasticity of the supply price at the producers level increased by about 5, which indicates the ability of producers to control the quantities offered, in light of expectations of an increase in selling prices in subsequent periods.

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Study of the Microbial Characteristics of Fermented Sausage Using Local Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum

Iman Askoul (1)* , Abdul Wahab Merai (2) and Abdulhakim Azizieh (2)

(1) National Commission for Biotechnology- Damascus, Syria.

(2) Food Science Department – Faculty of Agriculture- Damascus University-Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Iman askoul , E-Mail:

Received: 14/10/2020                     Accepted: 14/11/2020


This research was carried out in the laboratories of the National Commission for Biotechnology and the Department of  Food Science – Faculty of Agriculture at Damascus University, during the year (2018). The research aimed to study the effect of adding three locally selected isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum on the microbial characteristics of the final product of fermented sausage comparing with both spontaneously fermented sausage and fermented sausage by adding a commercial starter culture in order to select the best of these three isolates as a local starter culture for the production of fermented meat. Results showed that the addition of a bacterial starter culture of lactic acid bacteria contributed to improving the microbial properties of the product when compared to the negative control, and the sausage to which the local starter culture (S2,11) was added gave the best microbial characteristics, as it contained the highest number of lactic acid bacteria, which in turn was able to reduce the number of yeasts, fungi, coliform bacteria and total count of bacteria during the manufacturing and refrigerated storage stages, indicating the possibility of safe use of local starter culture (S2,11) to successfully produce fermented meat.

Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, Starter Cultures, Fermented Meat.

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The Effect of Using Carboxy Methylcellulose, Carrageenan and Boiling on the Chemical Composition and the Physicochemical Properties of Chicken Meatballs

Mahmoud Abdulkreem *(1)

(1).Dept. of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo-Aleppo-Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud Abdulkreem, E-Mail:

Received: 9/08/2020                                   Accepted: 06/09/2020


This study was conducted between June and July 2020 to study the effect of Carboxy methylcellulose, carrageenan and boiling on physicochemical properties of chicken meatballs. Addition of carboxymethylcellulose and carrageenan (2%) reduced the percentage of the moisture, the protein and the fat and increased the percentage of the ash in the samples before boiling. The addition of carrageenan increased the ability of the product to bind water, reduced the drip loss and improved the texture of the final product in comparison with carboxymethylcellulose. The using of two additives mentioned above reduced the loss during the boiling, but the using of carrageenan increased consumer acceptance to the final product. The results showed a slight significant decrease (P <0.05) for the percentage of protein, and a significant increase (P <0.05) for the fat and the ash content in the boiled and processed samples after adding carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose compared to the control. The using of carrageenan in comparison with carboxymethylcellulose reduced the loss of the fat and the ash content and increased the moisture content during the boiling process. The using of carboxymethylcellulose and carrageenan significantly reduced the acidity in both raw and boiled samples, also; the addition of carrageenan increased the salt content, unlike carboxymethylcellulose.

Key words: chicken meat, carrageenan, Carboxy-methylcellulose, Chicken Balls, boiling.

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Effect of Chemical Interesterification on the Properties of Some Lipids and its Mixtures

Roula Hamoui(1)* , Mahmud Dahan(1) and Faten Hamed(2)

  • Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.
  • Department of Food Technology, General commission of Agricultural and Scientific research, Damascus , Syria.

 (*Corresponding author: Roula Hamoui E-mail:

Received: 29/03/2020                                Accepted: 09/06/2020


This research was carried out at the oil technology laboratory in department of food science of the faculty of Agriculture engineering in 2019 where the Chemical Interesterification was applied using the sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) as the catalyst (0.5%) on various blends of sunflower oil and beef tallow during 60 minutes. Some physical and chemical tests were evaluated on the mixtures studied before and after the chemical interesterification which containing the number of peroxide, percentages of acidity, number of saponification, iodine value, slip melting point, Solid fat index (SFI%) and fatty acid composition. The results showed that the interesterification was effective to modify only the physical properties of the mixture studied, and the values of melting point showed high significant differences, before and after interesterification, while no significant differences appeared in the number of saponification and iodine value ​​between the studied mixtures before and after interesterification. The interesterification resulted a decrease in SFI% in the studied mixtures according to the type and proportions of the constituent lipids, this indicates that the interesterification leads to produced lipids with specific new properties that enter into various food processing.

Keywords: Chemical Interesterification, Slip Melting Point, SFI%, Fatty acids.

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The Application of COREIN Model to Estimate Soil Erosion Risk in the Basin of Mrqyieh River, Tartous, Syria, Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Rawan Khatib (1*), Bouchra Ali(2) and Wadieh Khoury(2)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Aleppo, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Aleppo , Syria.

(2).Department of Natural Resources Renewable and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Rawan Khatib. E-Mail:

Received: 14/05/2020                                Accepted: 20/07/2020


The soil water erosion risk is one of the most important problems and challenges facing the agricultural process in the Syrian coast today. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of dangerous areas of water erosion in the basin of the Mrqyieh River using CORINE model. To achieve this objective, the first phase of the study was to evaluate the soil erosion viability based on soil characteristics (soil texture, soil depth and percentage of stones); these properties were classified according to their influence degree on soil erosion. The potential risk erosion map was based on crossing all information obtained from soil erodibility, erosivity index and the degree of slope at study area by using GIS technologies. The land cover map of the study was produced and classified to two classes depending on soil protection degree. Then, an actual risk map of soil erosion was prepared after crossing land cover and potential risk erosion classes of study sites. This study showed that 14.8% of the studied area facing high risk of soil erosion, while the soil risk was moderate in 40.4% and low in 44.8% of the study area. The highly risked erosion area was located in the center, northern and northwest parts of the study area. Moreover, the study confirmed that the land cover is the most influential factor on soil water erosion. The results showed that the Corine model for soil water erosion mapping is a highly effective and cost-effective approach.

Keyword: Risk Water Erosion, Geographic information System, Mrqyieh River, Corine Methodology.

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Effect of Adding Different Washing Water Quantities on Wet Construction of Harji Area Soil in Deir Ez-Zor.

Al- Muthana Subhi  Al- Diwani (1)  and  Irfan Aswad Al-Hamd*(1)

(1)Department of Soil and Land Reclamation – Faculty of Agriculture – Euphrates University.

(*Corrsponding author: Irfan Al-Hamd. E-Mail:

Received: 22/02/2020                                Accepted: 23/03/2020


The study aimed to assess wet soil construction and the extent to which its compounds are water resistant during the use of different rates of leaching water. A field experiment was carried out at Al-Hariji area in Deir ez-Zor governorate in 2018 and is outside the scope of agricultural investment due to excess salinity. Using the method of the double metal rings internal in diameter (50) cm and external in diameter (75) cm, by adding the following rates: (5000, 7500, 10,000 m3/ha) and then covered the rings with nylon cover and thin layers of soil and herbs in order to reduce the evaporation process and designed the laundry experiment in the manner of random sectors and three repeats for each washing rate, and by (5 meters) between each two rings successively. The results were as follows: the unacceptable wet structural analysis of the diameter- granules (>0.25) changed to a bad state after using the washing rates (7500, 10,000) m3/ha at a depth of (0-25) cm. The soil was exposed to water drift under heavy rains and fragmentation of soil compound granules and thus sabotage its construction, resulting in the impoverishment and degradation of the surface layer with soft elements. This calls for the addition of organic and mineral residues as stable fertilizer and agricultural sulfur in order to improve this layer and provide it with the nutrients necessary for the growth of agricultural crops naturally and well. It was also noted that there were moral differences resulting from the effect of different washing rates, depth and interaction with wet compounds as a result of the addition of different amounts of washing water.

Keywords: Washing Water, Washing Rates, Wet Sifting.

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